Pioneer girl biography

pioneer girl biography

Pioneer Girl: The Annotated Autobiography : laura

This style of plaque was not used in the two actual nasa probes in the voyager program. In Star Trek: voyager the plaque appears on the viewing screen when a signal is sent by rain Robinson trying to communicate with voyager. 16 minutes and 28 seconds into episode 8 season 3 Future's End. In the science fiction film Star Trek v: The final Frontier, the plaque is shown attached to a pioneer probe floating in space—just before the probe is intercepted and destroyed by a bored Klingon ship captain, who scoffs "Shooting space garbage is no test. In the Star Trek novel Federation, a character mentions that humans had shown copies of the plaque to several alien races they encountered, but none had been able to decode. In " The message an episode of the science fiction series The outer Limits, a deaf woman was featured receiving alien signals through her cochlear implant, prompting her to write out Xs, 1s, and 0s on paper.

Pioneer Girl : The Story of laura Ingalls Wilder : William

11 In the original drawing, the man was drawn with an "Afro" haircut, so an additional African physical trait would be included in the man to make the figures look more panracial, but that detail was changed to a "non-African Mediterranean-curly haircut" in the finished. 12 Furthermore, delivering carl Sagan said that Linda sagan intended to portray both the man and woman as having brown hair, but the hair being only outlined rather than being both outlined and shaded made the hair appear blonde instead. 13 Other people had different interpretations of the race of people depicted by the figures. Whites, blacks and Asians each tended to think that the figures resembled their own racial group, so, although some people were proud that their race appeared to have been selected to represent all of humankind, others viewed the figures as "terribly racist" for "the apparently. 8 Linda sagan decided to make the figures nude to address the problem of the type of clothes they should wear to represent all of humanity and to make the figures more anatomically educational for extraterrestrials, but their nudity was viewed as pornographic by the. 8 According to astronomer Frank Drake, there were many negative reactions to the plaque because the human beings were displayed naked. 14 When images of the final design were published in American newspapers, one newspaper published the image with the man's genitalia removed and another newspaper published the image with both the man's genitalia and the woman's nipples removed. 6 In one letter to a newspaper, a person angrily wrote that they felt that the nudity of the images made the images obscene. 6 In contrast, in another letter to the same newspaper, a person was critical of the prudishness of the people who found depictions of nudity to be obscene. 6 In popular culture edit In the wii u title, xenoblade Chronicles x, the plaque is seen in the opening cut scene, damaged and floating in midspace, before one of the alien ships that later approaches Earth. In the science fiction film Star Trek: The motion Picture, the plaque's diagram is fleetingly shown during Spock's mindmeld with V'ger, a transformed nasa space probe, voyager.

The unit is 1/10 of Mercury 's orbit. Rather than the familiar "1" and "0 "I" and "-" are used. Silhouette of the spacecraft edit silhouette of the pioneer spacecraft relative to the size of the humans Behind the figures of the human beings, the silhouette of the pioneer spacecraft is shown in the same scale so that the size of the human beings can. Criticism edit One of the parts of the diagram that is among the easiest for humans to understand may be among the hardest for the extraterrestrial finders to understand: the arrow showing the trajectory of pioneer. An article in Scientific American 9 criticized the use of an arrow because arrows are an artifact of hunter-gatherer societies like those on Earth; finders with a different cultural heritage may find the arrow symbol meaningless. Art critic and activist Craig Owens said that sexual bias is exhibited by the choice to make the man in the diagram perform the wave literature gesture to greet the extraterrestrials while the woman in the diagram has her hands at her sides. 10 Feminists also took issue with this choice for the same reason. 11 Carl Sagan regretted that the figures in the finished engraving failed to look panracial. Although this was the intent, the final figures appeared caucasian.

pioneer girl biography

Margaret Sanger - activist, Activist, biography

In this regard the pioneer 11 plaque is somewhat inaccurate. The saturn flyby of pioneer 11 would also greatly influence its future direction and destination as compared to pioneer 10, but type this fact is not depicted in the plaques. Saturn's rings could give a further hint to identifying the solar System. Rings around the planets Jupiter, Uranus, and Neptune were unknown when with the plaque was designed; however, unlike saturn, the ring systems on these planets are not so easily visible and apparent as Saturn's. Pluto was considered to be a planet when the plaque was designed; in 2006 the iau reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet and then in 2008 as a plutoid. Other large bodies classed as dwarf planets, such as Eris, are not depicted, as they were unknown at the time the plaque was made. The binary numbers above and below the planets show the relative distance to the sun.

Rounding this off at about 10 significant bits ( ) would have provided a hint of this uncertainty. This pulsar is represented by the long line pointing down and to the right. The fifteenth line on the plaque extends to the far right, behind the human figures. This line indicates the sun's relative distance to the center of the galaxy. The pulsar map and hydrogen atom diagram are shared in common with the voyager Golden Record. Solar System edit The solar System with the trajectory of the pioneer spacecraft At the bottom of the plaque is a schematic diagram of the solar System. A small picture of the spacecraft is shown, and the trajectory shows its way past Jupiter and out of the solar System. Both pioneers 10 and 11 have identical plaques; however, after launch, pioneer 11 was redirected toward Saturn and from there it exited the solar System.

Pioneer, profile (P) southern Alberta pioneers and their

pioneer girl biography

Rosa parks, academy of Achievement

Kraemer, however, the original design that was presented to nasa headquarters included a line which indicated the woman's vulva, 8 and this line was erased as a condition for approval of essay the design by john naugle, former head of nasa's Office of Space Science and. 8 Relative position of the sun to the center of the galaxy and 14 pulsars edit relative position of the sun to the center of the galaxy and 14 pulsars with their periods denoted The radial pattern on the left of the plaque shows. Fourteen of the lines have corresponding long binary numbers, which stand for the periods of pulsars, using the hydrogen spin-flip transition frequency as the unit. Since these periods will change over time, the epoch of the launch can be calculated from these values. The lengths of the lines show the relative distances of the pulsars to the sun. A tick mark at the end of each line gives the z coordinate perpendicular to the galactic plane.

If the plaque is found, only some of the pulsars may be visible from the location of its discovery. Showing the location with as many as 14 pulsars provides redundancy so that the location of the origin can be triangulated even if only some of the pulsars are recognized. The data for one of the pulsars is misleading. When the plaque was designed, the frequency of pulsar "1240" (now known as J1243-6423) was known to only three significant decimal digits:.388 second. 1 The map lists the period of this pulsar in binary to much greater precision.

Below the symbol, the small vertical line—representing the binary digit 1—specifies a unit of length (21 cm) as well as a unit of time (0.7 ns). Both units are used as measurements in the other symbols. 4 Figures of a man and a woman edit On the right side of the plaque, a man and a woman are shown in front of the spacecraft. 5 Between the brackets that indicate the height of the woman, the binary representation of the number 8 can be seen (1000, with a small defect in the first zero). In units of the wavelength of the hyperfine transition of hydrogen this means 8 21 cm 168 cm. The right hand of the man is raised as a sign of good will.


Although this gesture may not be understood, it offers a way to show the opposable thumb and how the limbs can be moved. 6 Originally sagan intended the humans to be shown holding hands, but soon realized that an extraterrestrial might perceive them as a single creature rather than two organisms. 6 The original drawings of the figures were based on drawings by leonardo da vinci and Greek sculptures. 6 The woman's genitals are not depicted in detail; only the mons pubis is shown. It has been claimed that Sagan, having little time to complete the plaque, suspected that nasa would have rejected a more intricate drawing and therefore made a compromise just to be safe. 7 Carl Sagan said that the decision to not include the vertical line on the woman's genitalia ( pudendal cleft ) which would be caused by the intersection of the labia majora was due to two reasons. First, Greek sculptures of women do not include that line. Second, carl Sagan believed that a design with such an explicit depiction of a woman's genitalia would be considered too obscene to be approved by nasa. 6 According to the memoirs of Robert.

The, pioneer Woman cooks: Recipes from an Accidental

Nasa agreed to the plan and gave him three weeks to prepare a message. Together with Frank Drake he designed the plaque, and the artwork was prepared by linda salzman Sagan, who was Sagan's wife at the time. Both plaques were manufactured at Precision Engravers, san Carlos, california. The first plaque was launched with pioneer 10 on March 2, 1972, and the second followed with pioneer 11 on April 5, 1973. In may 2017 a limited edition of paper 200 replicas engraved from the original master design at Precision Engravers was made available in a kickstarter Campaign, which also offered laser-engraved replicas. 3 Physical properties edit material : 6061 T6 gold-anodized aluminium Width : 229 mm (9 inches) height : 152 mm (6 inches) Thickness :.27 mm (0.05 inch) mean depth of engraving :.381 millimeters (381 μm) (0.015 inch) Mass : approx. 0.120 kilograms (120 g) (4.2 oz) Symbolism edit hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen edit hyperfine transition of neutral hydrogen At the top left of the plate is a schematic representation of the hyperfine transition of hydrogen, which is the most abundant element in the universe. The spin-flip transition of a hydrogen atoms electron has a frequency of about 1420.405 mhz, which corresponds to a period.704. Light at this frequency has a vacuum wavelength.106 cm (which is also the distance the light travels in that time period).

pioneer girl biography

The, pioneer plaques are a pair of gold - anodized aluminium plaques which were placed on board the 1972. Pioneer, pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message, in case either, pioneer 10 or 11 is intercepted by extraterrestrial life. The plaques show the nude figures of a human male and food female along with several symbols that are designed to provide information about the origin of the spacecraft. The, pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were the first human-built objects to achieve escape velocity from the, solar System. The plaques were attached to the spacecraft's antenna support struts in a position that would shield them from erosion by interstellar dust. Contents, history edit, the original idea, that the, pioneer spacecraft should carry a message from mankind, was first mentioned. Eric Burgess 2 when he visited the jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, california, during the mariner 9 mission. He approached Carl Sagan, who had lectured about communication with intelligent extraterrestrials at a conference in Crimea. Sagan was enthusiastic about the idea of sending a message with the pioneer spacecraft.

helen had mastered Braille as well as the manual alphabet and even learned to use the typewriter. By the time she was 16, helen could speak well enough to go to preparatory school and to college. In 1904 she was graduated "cum laude" from Radcliffe college. The teacher stayed with her through those years, interpreting lectures and class discussions to her. Helen Keller, the little girl, became one of history's remarkable women. She dedicated her life to improving the conditions of blind and the deaf-blind around the world, lecturing in more than 25 countries on the five major continents. Wherever she appeared, she brought new courage to millions of blind people. Her teacher, Anne sullivan is remembered as "the miracle worker" for her lifetime dedication, patience and love to a half-wild southern child trapped in a world of darkness.

She knew that "w-a-t-e-r" meant the cool something flowing over her hand. Darkness began to melt from her mind like so much ice left out on the sunny march day. By nightfall, helen had learned 30 words. Helen Adams Keller was born a healthy child on June presentation 27, 1880, to captain Arthur. And Kate Adams Keller of Tuscumbia. At the tender age of 19 months, she was stricken with a severe illness which left her blind and deaf. At the age of six, the half-wild, deaf and blind girl was taken by her parents to see. Because of her visit, helen was united with her teacher Anne mansfield Sullivan on March 3, 1887.

Ladd Drummond biography - ladd Drummond Net Worth

At a plain, black well-pump in the small southern town of Tuscumbia, alabama, one roles of the world's great miracles took place. It began one bright, spring day in 1887. Puffy white clouds floated overhead on a background of blue, while birds fluttered through oaks and maples and flowers burst forth from the fertile soil in an array of colors—all unheard and unseen by a pretty girl of seven. Standing at the totally blind and deaf Helen Keller's side was a young woman, Anne sullivan. Miss Sullivan was steadily pumping cool water into one of the girl's hands while repeatedly tapping out an alphabet code of five letters in the other—first slowly, then rapidly. The scene was repeated again and again as young Helen painstakingly struggled to break her world of silence. Suddenly the signals crossed Helen's consciousness with a meaning.


Pioneer girl biography
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  4. Rosa parks, the mother of the civil Rights movement was one of the most important citizens of the 20th century. Parks was a seamstress in Montgomery, alabama when, in December of 1955, she refused to give up her seat on a city bus to a white passenger. Ree drummond is the 1 New York times bestselling author of The. Pioneer, woman cooks, The, pioneer, woman cooks: food from my frontier, and The. Pioneer, woman cooks: a year of Holidays.

  5. Fred Pace, a former member of the nwmp, operated a trading post at Standoff with Jimmy murray in the 1880s. The post was located.5 miles above the junction of the belly and the kootenai rivers. Pioneer plaques are a pair of gold-anodized aluminium plaques which were placed on board the 1972. Pioneer, pioneer 11 spacecraft, featuring a pictorial message, in case either. Pioneer 10 or 11 is intercepted by extraterrestrial life.

  6. At a plain, black well-pump in the small southern town of Tuscumbia, alabama, one of the world s great miracles took place. It began one bright, spring day in 1887. Learn more about Margaret Sanger, her long struggle to legalize birth control and the early days of the women s rights movement. Scientist and sexy screen star Hedy lamarr is worth a thorough read. Follow her celluloid and spread spectrum life on biography.

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