Their planning and execution with respect to training, maintenance, logistics, technical development, intelligence and full coordination with their land and surface forces, were limited in relation to the requirements that subsequently developed. Japan's war plans did not contemplate, nor were its capabilities such that it could have contemplated, interference with the sustaining resources of United States air power. December 7, 1941, found the United States and its Allies provocatively weak in the pacific, particularly in land and carrier-based air power. The Allied air groups actually in the pacific were not only few in number but, in large measure, technically inferior to those of the japanese. The japanese strength had been underestimated. Ninety p-40s and 35 B-17s in the Philippines could not be expected to check the japanese push southward. Three of our seven aircraft carriers were in the Atlantic and one training in the gulf of Mexico.
Summary of, world, war
In this Summary report the civilian officials and directors of the survey have not undertaken to write a history of the pacific war, nor to apportion credit for victory among the various component Allied forces. They have undertaken, as civilians, to present an analysis of the factual material gathered by the survey and their general appraisal thereof as to the future. Page 1 united states strategic bombing survey summary report the attack on pearl Harbor was designed around surprise, the range of carrier task forces, and the power of aircraft to sink surface vessels. It was executed with the loss of 29 Japanese pilots. Two days later, the japanese found the British battleship, Prince of Wales, and the battle cruiser, repulse, without air cover off Malaya and sent them to the bottom with the loss of 4 Japanese navy medium bombers. Allied air power in the Philippines, malaya, and the dutch East Indies was virtually eliminated, mostly on the ground, in a matter of days. Those enormous areas, once local allied air power had been eliminated, were laid open to occupation in a matter of weeks, at a cost of less than 15,000 Japanese soldiers killed, and with the loss from all causes in the entire campaign of 381 Japanese. As these achievements indicate, the japanese started the war aware of the fact that major offensive action cannot be undertaken without local control of the air. They also appreciated the vulnerability to air attack of surface objectives, both on land and at sea. The japanese failed, however, to appreciate the full scope and complexity of the requirements for continuing control of the air. The japanese aircraft production program at the start of the war was inadequate, as the japanese subsequently discovered, not only in relation to that of the United States, new but even in relation to the capabilities of their own economy.
The survey's complement provided for 300 civilians, 350 officers, and plan 500 enlisted men. Sixty percent of the military segment of the organization for the japanese study was drawn from the Army, and 40 percent from the navy. Both the Army and the navy gave the survey all possible assistance in the form of men, supplies, transport, and information. The survey operated from headquarters in tokyo, with subheadquarters in Nagoya, osaka, hiroshima, and Nagasaki, and with mobile teams operating in other parts of Japan, the islands of the pacific, and the Asiatic mainland. The survey secured the principal surviving Japanese records and interrogated top Army and navy officers, government officials, industrialists, political leaders, and many hundreds of their subordinates throughout Japan. It was thus possible to reconstruct much of wartime japanese military planning and execution, engagement by engagement and campaign by campaign, and to secure reasonably accurate data on Japan's economy and war production, plant by plant, and industry by industry. In addition, studies were made of Japan's over-all strategic plans and the background of her entry into the war, the internal discussions and negotiations leading to her acceptance of unconditional surrender, the course of health and morale among the civilian population, the effectiveness of the. Separate reports will be issued covering each phase of the study.
Foreword, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey was established by the secretary of War on 3 november 1944, pursuant to a directive from the late President roosevelt. It was established for the purpose of conducting an impartial and expert study of the effects of our aerial attack on Germany, to be used in connection with air attacks on Japan general and to establish a basis for evaluating air power as an instrument. A summary report and some 200 supporting reports containing the findings of the survey in Germany have been published. On, president Truman requested the survey to conduct a similar study of the effects of all types of air attack in the war against Japan. The officials of the survey in Japan, who are all civilians, were: Franklin d'olier, Chairman. Kenneth Galbraith, rensis likert, Frank. McNamee,., Fred searls,., monroe.
Thus, Osaka is spelled "Osake" on page 17, and yokohama is spelled "yokahoma" on page 20, as they were in the original document. Since these are romanizations anyway, it is arguable whether they are "misspelled" or not. Irregularities in hyphenation of compound words, punctuation, and syntax have all been left intact. The ussbs reports do not state or even suggest that the use of the atomic bomb against Japan was unwise. For a full discussion, see. The ussbs and the Atomic Bombs. Address comments and suggestions to Chuck Anesi. United states, government printing office, washington : 1946, page.
World, war, ii in Literature, summary
No country could withstand such attacks, and the japanese surrendered on 14 one August. The biggest conflict in history had lasted almost six years. Some 100 million people had been militarised, and 50 million had been killed. Of those who had died, 15 million were soldiers, 20 million were russian civilians, six million were jews and over four million were poles. United states strategic bombing survey, summary report (Pacific War washington,. Table of Contents (note: Please wait for the document download to complete before you start real clicking on the table of Contents links.). Notes: The edition of the summary report did not include a table of contents.
The table of contents above has been added to this edition to simplify navigation and provide an outline for first-time readers. Pagination of the original edition is preserved. Pages are separated with a header rule, and the page number is indicated at the top of each page. Page numbers are i through iii, followed by 1 through. Page ii was blank in the original (intentionally and is so noted here. The text is an exact reproduction of the 1946 original. Spelling has not been "corrected".
The soviet army continued its offensive from the east, while from the west the Allies established a bridge across the Rhine at Remagen, in March. While the bombing campaigns of the Blitz were over, german V1 and V2 rockets continued to drop on London. The return bombing raids on Dresden, which devastated the city in a huge firestorm, have often been considered misguided. Meantime, the western Allies raced the russians to be the first into berlin. The russians won, reaching the capital on 21 April. Hitler killed himself on the 30th, two days after Mussolini had been captured and hanged by Italian partisans.
Germany surrendered unconditionally on 7 may, and the following day was celebrated as ve (Victory in Europe) day. The war in Europe was over. In the pacific, however, it had continued to rage throughout this time. The British advanced further in Burma, and in February the Americans had invaded Iwo jima. The Philippines and okinawa followed and Japanese forces began to withdraw from China. Plans were being prepared for an Allied invasion of Japan, but fears of fierce resistance and massive casualties prompted Harry Truman - the new American president following roosevelt's death in April - to sanction the use of an atomic bomb against Japan. Such bombs had been in development since 1942, and on 6 August one of them was dropped on the japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later another was dropped on Nagasaki.
The real causes of, world, war 2 and its devastating Effects
Nevertheless, Cherbourg was liberated by the end of June. Paris followed two months later. Hitler's troubles were compounded by a russian counterattack in June. This drove 300 miles west to warsaw, and killed, wounded or captured 350,000 German soldiers. By barbing the end of August the russians had taken Bucharest. Estonia was taken within months, and Budapest was under siege by the end of the year. One glimmer of light for Germany came in the Ardennes, in France, where in December a german counteroffensive - the battle of the bulge - killed 19,000 Americans and delayed the Allies' march into germany. Top, events of 1945, the new year saw the soviet liberation of Auschwitz, and the revelation of the sickening obscenity of the holocaust, its plan scale becoming clearer as more camps were liberated in the following months.
Rome was liberated in June, the day before the Allies' operation 'operation overlord now known as the d-day landings. On 6 June - as Operation overlord got underway - some 6,500 vessels landed over 130,000 Allied forces on five normandy beaches: codenamed Utah, Omaha, gold, juno and Sword. Some 12,000 aircraft ensured air superiority for the Allies - bombing German defences, and providing cover. The pessimistic predictions that had been made of massive allied casualties were not borne out. On Utah beach 23,000 troops were landed, with 197 casualties, and most of the 4,649 American casualties that day occurred at Omaha beach, where the landing was significantly more difficult to achieve, meeting with fierce german resistance. Overall, however, the landings caught the germans by surprise, and they were unable to counter-attack with the necessary speed and strength. Anything that was moving and German was liable to be attacked from the air. Despite this, in the weeks following the landings Allied progress was slowed considerably, by the narrow lanes and thick hedgerows of the French countryside.
maintain air superiority and ensure the - ultimately indefinite - postponement of the german invasion plans. The 'blitz' of Britain's cities lasted throughout the war, saw the bombing of Buckingham Palace and the near-destruction of coventry, and claimed some 40,000 civilian lives. Top, events of 1944, with advances in Burma, new guinea and guam, japan began its last offensive in China, capturing further territory in the south to add to the acquisitions made in central and northern areas following the invasion of 1938. However, their control was limited to the major cities and lines of communication, and resistance - often led by the communists - was widespread. The Allied advance in Italy continued with landings at Anzio, in central Italy, in January. It was a static campaign. The germans counter-attacked in February and the fighting saw the destruction of the medieval monastery at Monte cassino after Allied bombing. Only at the end of may did the germans retreat from Anzio.
In France an armistice was signed with Germany, with the puppet French Vichy government - pdf under a hero of World War One, marshall Pétain - in control in the 'unoccupied' part of southern and eastern France, and Germany in control in the rest of the. Charles de gaulle, as the leader of the Free french, fled to England (much to Churchill's chagrin) to continue the fight against Hitler. But it looked as if that fight might not last too long. Having conquered France, hitler turned his attention to Britain, and began preparations for an invasion. For this to be successful, however, he needed air superiority, and he charged the luftwaffe with destroying British air power and coastal defences. The battle of Britain, lasting from July to september, was the first to be fought solely in the air. Germany lacked planes but had many pilots.
World, war, two: Summary, outline of key events
Events of 1940, rationing was introduced in Britain early in the new year, but little happened in western Europe until the spring. The 'winter war' between Russia and Finland concluded in March, and in the following month Germany invaded Denmark and Norway. Denmark surrendered immediately, but the norwegians fought on - with British and French assistance - surrendering in June only once events in France meant that they were fighting alone. On 10 may - the same day that Winston Churchill replaced neville Chamberlain as Prime minister of the uk - germany invaded France, belgium and Holland, and western Europe encountered the Blitzkrieg - or 'lightning war'. Germany's combination of fast armoured tanks on land, and superiority in the air, made a unified attacking force that was both innovative and effective. Despite greater numbers of air and army personnel - and the presence of the British Expeditionary force - the low countries and France proved no match for the wehrmacht and the luftwaffe. Holland and Belgium fell by the end of may; Paris was taken two weeks later. British troops retreated from the invaders in haste, and some 226,000 British and 110,000 margaret French troops were rescued from the channel port of Dunkirk only by a ragged fleet, using craft that ranged from pleasure boats to navy destroyers.