Humanity is on the brink of a global environmental collapse, as the price of our current global civilization. . The ancients confused the symbolic with the literal, thinking that a contrived symbol of wealth and prosperity was wealth and prosperity itself. . Their ignorance, rapaciousness, and foolishness doomed their civilizations. With the western Roman Empires collapse, europe did little gold mining for the next thousand years. . As Europe began acting as a cohesive entity and evolved once again beyond a primarily agrarian state, it wanted the fantastic riches that were in the Islamic and Eastern Roman world, and the rich lands beyond, such as in India and China. . It took some of the Islamic and Eastern Roman wealth by force during the Crusades. . During the late middle Ages and Renaissance, the specialization of labor became more prevalent as Europe again evolved beyond an agrarian society. . guilds and other institutions came into being. .
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The palestine of the bible was forested. . The fertile Crescent was forested. . Northern Africa was forested. . civilization destroyed the forests, and the lands ability to sustain life. . The mediterraneans desert-like environs are not a natural condition, but the result of humanity's depredations. . While Egyptians and Romans sent millions of people to death in the mines and arenas, they also made the world poorer. . Carl sauer remarked long ago on how our economic theories fail to account for what real wealth is, and how our progress has destroyed the worlds real wealth. . Destroying ecosystems in the name of greed or maria short-lived agricultural prosperity is suicidal, but a relative few are able to lead lives of extravagance for a short time, while countless others suffer greatly, including non-human species. . That is civilization in action. All early civilizations collapsed, and there has never been a sustainable civilization. .
A produce of which the value is principally derived from its scarcity, is necessarily degraded reviews by its abundance." 8 Smith wrote about gold rushes: "Of all those expensive and uncertain projects he was writing about the Spanish gold rushes begun by columbus -., however. It is perhaps the most disadvantageous lottery in the world, or the one in which the gain of those who draw the prizes bears the least proportion to the loss of those who draw the blanks: for though the prizes are few and the blanks. Projects of mining, instead of replacing the capital employed in them, together with the ordinary profits of stock commonly absorb both capital and profit. . They are the projects, therefore, to which of all others a prudent law-giver, who desired to increase the capital of his nation, would least choose to give any extraordinary encouragement, or to turn towards them a greater share of that capital than what would. If one had expendable slaves, gold mining made sense. . Ancient Egypt had slaves, and ancient Rome greatly advanced the craft, creating technological improvements (and borrowing some from Greece) in order to enhance mining efficiency. . It was efficient in that they mined more gold, and efficient from the standpoint of getting more production from the slaves before they died. What those ancient civilizations failed to comprehend was that true wealth was food, shelter, clothing, and an environment that could sustain. . The mediterranean region used to be forested. .
As with other empires, a primary thrust of the roman Empires expansion was securing all lands where gold was found, either plundering the royal treasuries of conquered lands, creating new mines, or taking over existing ones. . Romes most productive mines were in Spain, where a great fountain of gold poured forth, and great piles of corpses were created. . Rome eventually ran out of energy and collapsed, and Europe reverted to a primarily agrarian culture for the next millennium. Civilized people did not comprehend the difference between real wealth and its symbol. . Gold was the ultimate currency, because it was scarce and durable. . There is no intrinsic wealth in gold. . Ancient peoples could not eat it, or make a tool or weapon from. . In the worlds first major economic treatise, adam Smiths wealth of Nations, he noted how misplaced the search for gold was: "The most abundant mines either of the precious metals or of the precious stones could add little to the wealth of the world. .
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From Central Europe to the novel caucasus mountains, from Ireland to Africa and Persia, gold was being mined, usually by slaves. The enigmatic Etruscans were awash with gold, and their civilization led to the roman Empire, which eventually became the known worlds center. . The roman Empire is often seen as the pinnacle of favorite ancient civilization, but the roman experience can make one wonder whether civilization is desirable. . Using much of what the Etruscans taught them, the roman Empire built great buildings, roads, and aqueducts that people still marvel over. . The roman Empire was also one of the most murderous, greedy, and cruel regimes that the world has known. .
Political murder, debauchery, and greed were standard features of Roman life. . If one became part of the middle class or better, life could be pretty good. . Yet, the roman Empire was built on the blood and bones of those who did the work. . Hundreds of thousands of Romes inhabitants received free food. . to entertain the masses, people were forced to murder one another at the various arenas, and the grandest was the coliseum, where the Emperor would lead the festivities. . Historian Michael Grant wrote that history's "two most quantitatively destructive institutions are nazism and the roman gladiators." 7 Those who died in the arenas were usually slaves, which meant people from lands that Rome conquered. The slaves often preferred taking their chances in the arenas rather than work in the imperial mines. .
Pharaohs gave gifts of highly coveted gold to neighboring rulers, and from the beginning, even the Pharaohs gold was debased with copper. . The gold buried with the Pharaohs was eventually dug up by grave robbers and made its way into the economy as jewelry and a symbol of wealth. In the Old Testament, even the jewish god lusted for gold. . When Joshua laid siege to jericho, and received his gods miraculous aid in crumbling the walls with the sound of trumpets, joshuas men killed every man, woman, and child in Jericho, as well as all their livestock as an offering to the lord (he spared. 5 Then all the gold, silver, bronze, and iron was salvaged and put into the lords treasury. 6 That was one way of securing the Promised Land and filling up the coffers. .
King Solomon had his mines, and Jerusalems temple was gilt with gold. Egypt eventually declined, and from Assyria to babylonia, from Hittites to minoans to Phoenicians and Carthaginians, from Persia to Greece, empires continually rose and fell in that region. . Gold was a central concern of all of them, and was the universal measure of wealth. . As an empire rose, it plundered all the gold it could from its neighbors. . The same piece of gold could pass through many incarnations over the millennia, perhaps starting as a work of art after being gleaned from the earth. . Then it was buried with its owner, then the grave was robbed and it was sold for food. . Then it was melted down into bullion, then made into a coin, then melted down into a new coin of a new empire, then becoming part of a temples artwork, then stripped during the sack of a city and eventually made into an ornament, then. Mining took place across that part of the world, usually in or near mountains. .
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Gold was too soft to make tools or weapons, but it became the reviews artistic and sacred metal. According to modern archeologys findings, slightly behind the rise of Sumer in the fertile Crescent was Egypt, another river-valley civilization. . Whereas long the fertile Crescent had little gold, Egypt had the first great gold mines, out in the desert. . Worked by slaves, with their bones littering the mines, Egypt set the pattern of Western gold mining labor standards. . The slaves were deemed expendable, and properly feeding and housing them was more costly than obtaining new slaves, so the logic of the day demanded that the slaves be worked to death in the mines, if they even survived the journey to them. 4 Gold was reserved for royalty, as it was central to Egypts sun god religion. . Gold abounded in the royal quarters, their thrones, and tombs. . Gold was officially a royal monopoly, although there was a black market for. . The gold made its way in small measure to the commoners, and the other burgeoning civilizations lusted for. .
In the more primitive civilizations, everybody was more or less treated equally, while in the more advanced societies, the leaders and elite classes were largely power-hungry thieves. 1, although such a dynamic is nearly considered a law of political science, although that law appears to be generally true for places such as the, new World before columbus stumbled into it, there also appear to be significant exceptions, going both ways: of stratified. 2, in the soft sciences such as anthropology and political science, just as in the hard sciences, the danger is to believe that ones theories have universal and timeless application, and are laws. . As Einstein said, every theory is eventually killed by a fact. The earliest industries, such as the forging of copper and iron, grew from artistic endeavors, and the metal that became the subject of more human passion than any other, gold, may have been the first metal that was worked, although it is more generally thought. 3, the so-called cradle of civilization, the fertile Crescent, is apparently where societies first changed from egalitarian to kleptocratic. . Gold was associated with the sun, was considered a sacred substance in many cultures, and was used in artwork. .
archeological digs, analyzing evidence that is tens of thousands of years old, the issue of economics can scarcely be separated from the social, political, and spiritual aspects of the studied societies. . In pastoral societies of Asias steppe regions, wealth was often measured by how many horses somebody had, and he with the most horses was the chief. . In the so-called primitive economies, food was the greatest wealth, which was directly related to the land. . food was obtained by labor, so when civilizations arose, land, labor, and food were inextricably linked to the social/political dynamics, and usually the spiritual/religious dynamics. . One theory of political science is that when population densities increase, increasingly stratified political/social structures evolve. . As political empires grew, so would their wealth-concentrating capacities. . The so-called evolution of hunter-gatherers to domestic farmers and herders and to civilization has been called the evolution from egalitarianism to kleptocracy. .
The, savings and loan Scandal and Public Accounting. By, wade Frazier, originally published June 19, 2001, updated roles in november 2014. A brief Economic History, the, biggest Gold Rush of All Time. The, need for Public Accounting, the, savings and loan Industry and What doomed. The, savings and loan Gold Rush and Public Accounting. An, enron Postscript and the next Possible Scandal. The, new Scandal is Part of a global Financial Meltdown. What, inning of the Global Financial Meltdown are we in?
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