Typically 5 evenly spaced views over. Del size.2. (Molecular breast tomo) Merged image (x-ray blue, molecular image purple). Dcis visible as region of focal uptake in molecular image (red arrow). Black circle indicates region biopsied based on subject s screening exam. That biopsy was negative. Combined X-ray tomo diffuse Optical Tomo system - mgh breast imaging tomo: 45 swing angle (22.5 15 projections Image resolution:.1mm.1mm x 1 mm Procedure: Position breast Compression take optical measurements (45 s) Remove optical probes take dbt scan (20 s) Done duration.
Digital, tomosynthesis, shows Promise in, breast
58 (2013) With truncation artifact correction Truncation Artifact Correction Without truncation artifact correction corrected y lu, hp chan, j wei, for lm hadjiiski phys. 58 (2013) 14 Contrast Enhanced (CE) Tomosynthesis Single energy: r jong, m hill, j mainprize, m yaffe, sunnybrook health Sciences Center, toronto single and dual energy: a-k carton, j currivan, e conant a maidment, University of Pennsylvania dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (CE) Tomosynthesis X-ray projections Pre post. Yaffe Flow phantom with hollow spheres; Iodine in 2 of the flow paths ce-tomosynthesis Iodine iodine mammo tomo ce-tomo courtesy. Yaffe with subtraction can identify spheres with Iodine dual energy (DE) Tomosynthesis Andrew da maidment, PhD University of Pennsylvania ann-Katherine carton et al, bjr 2010; 83: HE: 49 kvp, Rh target, 25 Rh0.25mmCu filter LE: 30 kvp, Rh target, 25 Rh filter 7 projection views. Mild, pain-free compression is used. 2) X-ray views are acquired. The total radiation dose is less than or equal to that of regular 2-D mammography. Typically 13 views over. Del size is 90 microns. Aus-suggested ductal extension aus 3) Molecular breast imaging views are acquired. The total scan time is 10 minutes per breast.
Wu, et al, med. 2004; 31: z o asf for Different Tomo Angles using 13 Projection views in Each Case Artifacts in dbt 16 o 8 o 60 o vertical location 0 mm is the in focus plane (z o ) Note: Better resolution (narrower asf) for larger tomo. I sechopoulos c ghetti, medical Physics, vol. 4, April 2009 y x z artifacts from metallic biopsy clips x y z y interplane Artifact Bright shadow of dense object spreads across slices beyond the physical thickness of the object x z x-y plane x x-z plane y y-z paper plane z mass. Observed in out-of-focus planes Repetitive zipper like appearance Images Truncation Artifact due to incomplete coverage of entire breast in some projections. Nth thru (n-1)th, below) 21 projection views obtained with u of Michigan ge research dbt system 60 o tomo angle note cutoff in projection views at beginning end of scan. Y lu, hp chan, j wei, lm hadjiiski phys.
10 mtf: s-dbt 4 cycles/mm dbt.7 cycles/mm Note degradation in mtf of both projections reconstructed images with tube motion. Spatial Resolution in dbt stationary dbt with 31 carbon nanotubes Conventional Hologic Selenia dimensions Tomosynthesis focus plane images of specks in the acr mammography accreditation phantom. Zoomed views of central specks in clusters 7, 8,. Speck diameters left to right:.54,.40 and.32 mm 11 12 Planar (x,y) depth (z) Resolution in dbt a) Planar (x,y) resolution is comparable to ffdm (e.g. microns) B) Depth (z) resolution is much worse than planar due to limited angle acquisition. Note: Smaller angle yields poorer z-resolution,. G., 28-deg angle 600 microns z-resolution References: Ren br, stein j, smith a et al, design and performance of the prototype statement full field breast tomosynthesis system with selenium based flat panel detector, medical Imaging 2005; spie vol 5745: Observation of super-resolution in digital breast tomosynthesis. Acciavatti r j, maidment ada, med Phys 2012;39(12 measurement of depth (z) resolution Artifact spread function asf(z where m C (z) mean pixel values of a calcification m B (z) mean pixel value of background in an off-focal plane image at depth z and.
X li, d zhang, b liu, medical Physics 2011; 38 (1 random central ray offset of projections of 0 mean and std dev of 2 pixels (0.2 mm) 10 11 C) Effect of reconstruction algorithms ffect of Filter pixel Binning on Filtered Back Projection Reconstruction. 6142, 61420F, (2006) Ludwig mertelmeier et al iwdm 2008, lncs 5116, pp, 2008 A) Filtered Backprojection (FBP) B) sart c) fbp using kernel determined with iterative reconstruction fbp fbp with iter filter sart fbp with poly filter Spiculated Mass D) fbp using polynomial fit. ) fbp b) fbp with filter that emphasizes higher freqs. C) (A) with binning D) (B) with binning D) Effect of tube motion during exposures. High resolution stationary digital breast tomosynthesis using distributed carbon nanotube x-ray source array qian, xin; Tucker, Andrew; Gidcumb, Emily;. Medical physics 2012; 39: a) Projection mtfs of stationary (s-dbt) rotating gantry dbt systems along the scanning direction. 10 mtf: s-dbt.1 cycles/mm along scanning direction,.2 cycles/mm perpendicular dbt 4 cycles/mm along scanning direction,.4 cycles/mm perpendicular a) Hologic Selenia dimensions rotating gantry system with the mammo tube in several positions tube moves continuously. B) Stationary dbt system with 31 carbon nanotube x-ray source array mounted on the selenia dimensions gantry. B) System mtf obtained using reconstructed in-focus slice.
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Nees, md a 2) microcalcification clusters in digital breast tomosynthesis a university of Michigan b ge global Research 6 7 Advanced Mode dbt system Advanced Mode dbt system ge prototype Step and shoot design X-ray source and detector stationary during exposure variable tomographic angle variable. Acquisition geometry All disks All 4 heterogeneous cd phantom arrangements 16d 17p 30d 11p 60d 21p 40d 11p 60d 21pv 60d 17pv 40d 13pv 40d 15pv 40d 15pv2 24deg 9pv min Outlier Max Outlier Summary cnrs for all disks heterogeneous cd phantom, all arrangements Labels. 60d 21p (p 10-5 ) 16d 17p. 60d 21pv (p 10-4 ) 16d 17p. 60d 17pv (p 10-6 ) 60d 17pv. 24d 9p (p 10-3 biography ) CD: 16d 17p (60d 21p, 60d 21pv 60d 17pv) 24d 9p 60d 17pv 3 mm diameter Disks Heterogeneous cd slab surrounded by heterogeneous slabs.4mm depth 16d 17p 30d 11p 60d 21p 40d 11p 60d 21pv 60d 17pv 40d 13pv. Narrow angle scan can provide higher detection sensitivity and conspicuity of subtle mcs than wide-angle scan.
The optimal acquisition should account for mass as well as calcification perception, dbt artifacts, and scan time. Projection mismatches of gantry angle ( ).14 o (standard deviation) can reduce reconstructed lesion intensity. Also, small offset errors (0.31 o ) in yaw angle can reduce lesion intensity. Mainprize j, et al Med. Phys.2011; 38 (6 3090 Hologic geometric Calibration Phantom geometric offset errors: Effect on image quality no offset.2.2 mm metal marker balls Random central ray offset of projections of 0 mean and std dev of 1 pixel (0.1 mm) Note: Technologists perform geometric.
Variants: ml-em, ml-convex Today s dbt units Flat Panel Detector, cone beam: ge hologic ims giotto Planmed siemens Photon counting Strip Detectors, multiple Slot beam: Philips/Sectra xcounter fda approval Full field Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Hologic Selenia dimensions (February 11, 2011) First published paper on the. Test shot at 0 o for ffdm, -7.5 o for dbt determines mas Selenia dimensions: Image Acquisition Modes 3 ds gantry.2.4 cm detector (100 m Indirect ge senographe ds dbt clinical Trial configuration Combo: Tomo conv under the same 1 compression. Xcounter xct-3t xcounter xct-3T Philips / Sectra gas detector Silicon detector 24 o angle, 48 views, fbp plus iterative tube, pre-patient collimator and detector mounted on e-arm. Scanning e-arm across breast allows simultaneous acquisition of multiple (48) projection images xcounter photon counting gas detector technology 2010: Xcounter decided to focus on photon counting detectors will not produce this system commercially. There is still a prototype at Karolinska hospital in Stockholm. 5 6 Philips / Sectra tomo unit Characteristics of Current Breast Tomo Units Photon counting detector with 2 energy bins.
projections detector lines 21 Total tomosynthesis angle 11 continuous motion Target/filter: W/Al, reconstruction: Iterative used in eu s Highrex project: tomo alone combined with spectral imaging w/ w/o contrast agent. See: Unit Tomo angle views pixel pitch 2x2 binning detector scan time ge gen2 60 o micron no Csi-a-si.5 sec ge ds 40 o micron no Csi-a-si sec ge essential 25 o micron no Csi-a-si 7 sec ims giotto 40 o micron yes. Step and Shoot 3) Total sweep time (breast motion) 4) X-ray spectrum (anode, filter, kvp) (subject contrast) 5) mas (quantum noise) 6) Detector dqe (contrast, resolution noise) 7) Detector lag (artifacts, blur) 8) Detector pixel size, interspace, binning of pixels 9) Reconstruction algorithm (fbp. Matrix inv.) 10) Image processing (e.g. Edge contrast enhancement) 11) Image display (slice thickness, slab. Slice) 12) Artifact scatter corrections Examples of some factors that affect dbt image quality A) Effect of Imaging geometry University of Michigan Studies: The effects of total acquisition angle and angular increment on the detection of : 1) masses and perception of contrast-detail test objects. Roubidoux, md a mitra noroozian, md a alexis.
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Brings inplane objects in focus while blurring out-of-plane features. Tuned Aperture revelation ct (Webber et al) shift add with fiducial markers. Allows images to be acquired at random angles orientations reconstructed in arbitrary planes. Matrix Inversion (mits) (Dobbins et al) Uses linear algebra to solve/correct for out-of-plane blur using known blurring functions of all other planes when a given plane is reconstructed. Mari lehtimaki et al White paper, Instrumentarium, finland Reconstruction Methods Cont d Filtered Back Projection Low-pass filters used in spatial frequency domain to compensate for incomplete /or nonuniform sampling of tomo acquisition in spatial domain suppress high freq. Algebraic Reconstruction Techniques (ART) Iterative solution to set of linear equations ray by ray. Variants: sart, sirt, and ilst statistical Reconstruction Maximum likelihood (ML) maximize probability of generating projections given a 3-D model of attenuation coefficients.
Unlike conventional tomography, the various in-focus planes are produced without additional exposure. Can be considered limited angle. Shift add Tomosynthesis Reconstruction Dobbins godfrey - phys Med biol 2003; 48: R65-R106 Shift and Add Tomosynthesis Stationary detector 2 mage receptor (Detector) Acquisition Reconstruction Acquisition Reconstruction 1 2 Inventor of Tomosynthesis george ziedses des Plantes ( ) Other Inventor: Julius kaufman, md brooklyn,. Geneesk : Seriescopy, a roentgenographic method which allows an infinite number of successive parallel planes of the test object to be considered separately (translated) tomosynthesis stated with this method, it is possible to demonstrate any plane in space, parallel to the plane of the plate. Stressed localization and depth measurement capabilities of method. Tomo: ge research system at Univ of Michigan Invasive ductal carcinoma slice 23 Mammogram Tomosynthesis Mammogram Tomosynthesis Digital Breast Tomosynthesis late 1990 s 1) lt niklason, bt christian, le niklason, db kopans, et al, radiology 1997; 205: ) Instrumentarium tact (Tuned Aperture ct ge gen.
Stereo or Tomo Breast biopsy in prone or upright position. Interchangeable guides for compatibility with all types of biopsy drivers. Remote control with.7 touch-screen display where you control all the parameters. Total weight of the biopsy kit is less than.5 kg 360 biopsy access with lateral and cranial caudal approaches, same accessibility to the breast whether in the upright or the prone position. 1 History, theory and Operation of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Systems University of Michigan Hospitals Mitch goodsitt, PhD and heang-Ping Chan, Phd department of Radiology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, mi disclosure research Collaboration with ge global Research Tomosynthesis 3-D method of imaging that reduces. Involves acquisition of multiple projections over a limited angle. Reconstruction produces many image slices. Reference: Digital x-ray business tomosynthesis: Current state of the art and clinical potential James.
Journal Highlights - august 2014
Stereo, tomo or Combined biopsy, smartfinder is the high-precision automatic breast biopsy biography digital device for giotto class, it allows examinations performed with. Tomo-guided or Stereotactic technique with patient in upright position or, in combination with the flexitable biopsy table, also in prone position. Giotto class can be transformed into a dedicated unit for biopsies with the patient in a prone or upright position. You will have a one-of-a-kind instrument for successfully resolving all of your imaging demands. The conversion to prone unit is quick and easy and it is easy for the patient to get on the biopsy table using the step. Thanks to the four wheels, the biopsy table can be quickly positioned and the breast centered ready to start the biopsy procedure. The prone position gives you complete confidence in achieving the best biopsy results with the highest degree of comfort for the patient. The operator has maximum accessibility to the breast and wide work space in the operating area.