While free essays can be traced by turnitin (plagiarism detection program our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. In the United States, about 16 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus, although only half of these individuals are diagnosed. Every year, about 650,000 people learn they have the disease. Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of all deaths and the sixth leading cause of all deaths caused by disease. Diabetes is the most common in adults over 45 years of age; in people who are overweight or physically inactive; in individuals who have an immediate family member with diabetes; and in minority populations including African Americans, hispanics, and Native americans.
An, essay on, diabetes : making a sound Paper
Sixth stage the complete destruction of b-cells, and a complete lack of insulin secretion and C-peptide. Clinical signs of diabetes form and insulin treatment becomes necessary again. The provided diabetes essay sample is a perfect example of an academic paper that should be written by students. Nevertheless, we should warn you that the entirety of this text or its parts cannot be used in your own paper. The consequence of such an action is that your mentor may consider that your work is plagiarism. However, you have a way out of this situation: order the needed paper from problem EssayShark and get a unique and high-quality academic paper. We know that its particularly exciting to write a good college paper, but the difficulties that college and university students face while writing are sometimes unmanageable. The provided sample academic paper was created by a professional writer from our service. If you need one, just order it at any time, as our support team works 24/7. Essay, term paper, research paper: Medicine, free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on, medicine: diabetes Mellitus, you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay.
Second stage the initiation of the autoimmune process in islands of B cells influenced with viruses, cytotoxic agents and any other unknown factors. A crucial point in this step is the expression of B cells hla-dr-antigen and glutamic acid, and therefore, they become autoantigens that cause the development of autoimmune response reactions. Third stage the stage of the active immunological process with formation of antibodies to b cells, insulin and autoimmune insulitis development. Fourth stage the progressive reduction of insulin secretion stimulated by glucose (1-phase secretion of insulin). Fifth stage clinical diabetes (the manifestation summary of diabetes). This step develops during the occurrence of the degradation and death of 85-90 of the b cells. Many patients after the insulin treatment fall into remission of the disease (the diabetic honeymoon). Its length depends on the severity and degree of B cell damage, their ability to regenerate, and the level of residual insulin secretion, as well as the severity and frequency of related viral infections.
They have weakened antiviral immunity, and they are extremely susceptible to cytotoxic damage to the b cells by viruses and chemical agents. Viral Infection, viral infection may be a revelation factor that provokes the development of iddm. The most common occurrence of iddm clinically is preceded by the following viral infections: measles (rubella virus has a tropism to the islets of the pancreas, accumulates, and can be replicated in them coxsackievirus and hepatitis b virus (can be replicated in the insular apparatus. The role of viral infection is confirmed by seasonality in the incidence of iddm development (often, the first diagnosed cases of iddm among children occur in autumn and winter months, with a peak incidence in October and January the detection of high titers of antibodies. The role of viral infections in the development of iddm is confirmed in experimental studies. Viral infections among individuals with a genetic predisposition to iddm are involved in the development of the disease as follows: the cause of acute injury to b cells (Coxsackievirus leads to viral persistence (congenital cytomegalovirus infection, rubella) with the development of autoimmune reactions in the. In modern diabetology, the next staging of iddm is expected. First stage a genetic predisposition, due to the presence of certain antigens in the hla system, as well as genes of chromosomes 11 and.
Genetic Factors and Markers, the role of genetic factors as a cause of diabetes has been proven definitively. This is the main etiological factor for diabetes. Iddm is considered to be a polygenic disease which is based on at least two of the mutant genes in diabetic chromosome. They are associated with the hla system (D-locus which determines the individual, genetically determined response of the body and B cells to various antigens. The hypothesis of polygenic inheritance of iddm suggests that diabetes is caused from two mutant genes (or two groups of genes) that have a recessive inherited predisposition to autoimmune lesions of the insular apparatus or increased sensitivity of B cells to viral antigens or attenuated. Genetic susceptibility is linked with particular genes of hla systems, which are considered markers of such a predisposition. Patients with a genetic predisposition to iddm have an altered response to environmental factors.
Essay : diabetes type 1 essay
The world health Organization (1999) meeting has predicted that diabetes will rise to the top seventh cause of death worldwide by mansa 2030. There are three common forms of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. This paper mainly discusses these major forms of diabetes considering their causes and consequences. Type 1 diabetes, in type 1 diabetes mellitus, body cells fail to produce insulin due to a compromised immune system causing damage to the cells where production of insulin takes place. The cause and prevention of type 1 diabetes are not particularly known; however, it is suspected to be a consequence of certain genetic factors. Type 2 diabetes, in type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is low production of insulin by the body cells or the body does not effectively make use of the produced insulin.
Type 2 diabetes is known to be the commonest type of diabetes; in fact, 90 of diabetes sufferers have type 2 diabetes (World health Organization, 1999). The cause and cure of type 2 diabetes remains unknown; however, genetic factors and manner of living take part in its causes, and watching blood sugar level can control the disease. Gestational diabetes happens when there is a development of high blood sugar level in pregnant women not previously diagnosed of diabetes. For mothers who had gestational diabetes during their first pregnancy, the probability that it will occur in subsequent pregnancies is approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, some patients may subsequently develop type 2 diabetes. After pregnancy, diabetes type 1 or 2 may occur and will require obligatory treatment.
Mmp expression is usually timed and controlled. The balance between proteases and their inhibitors is essential for wound healing.(14). 888 Words 4 Pages, diabetes, diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body produces too little insulin (Type One diabetes) or cant use available insulin efficiently ( Type Two diabetes). Insulin is a hormone vital to helping the body use digested food for growth and energy. According to the national Institute of diabetes and Digestive and Kidney diseases, about 17 million Americans have diabetes and every year about 1 million more age 20 or older are diagnosed with the disorder. People who are overweight, do not exercise, and are 30 years or older are more likely to get the disease (especially type 2 diabetes).
People who are also of African American, latino/Hispanic, native american, Alaskan show more content, present treatments for type one diabetes require lifelong care in order to keep blood sugar levels within a safe range. Some treatments include monitoring blood levels several times a day using a home blood sugar meter, taking several insulin injections everyday or using an insulin pump, eating a balanced diet that spreads carbohydrates (sugars) throughout the day to prevent high sugar levels after meals, regular. Present treatments for type two diabetes include eating a balanced diet to prevent high sugar levels after meals, getting regular physical exercise because it helps the body respond to insulin better, monitoring blood sugar at home to know when the level is above or below. Future treatments for the disease are as follows. In the future people may be able to inhale insulin rather than take painful injections. Introduction, diabetes (or diabetes mellitus) is a complex group of diseases caused by a number of reasons. Individuals suffering from diabetes have hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) either because there is low production of insulin or body cells do not use the produced insulin. About 350 million people suffer from diabetes globally (Danaei., 2011).
Essay on lal bahadur shastri childhood diabetes, creative writing
(12) Many factors add to this. Recovery is impaired by neuropathy as due to lack of sensation the foot is more likely to be used, with continual trauma being applied and possibly an abnormal walking pattern. As the foot is insensitive a chronic ulcer can form from minor trauma and prevent healing. (6, 13) Additionally, ischemia delays healing. Infection can delay healing and cause deterioration of the ulcer.(6) Amputation is commonly a result of the infection. The prolonged inflammatory phase diabetic wounds have, leads to an increase protease response. Common proteases involved include matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and elastases. Their role is crucial to angiogenesis, epithelialization, debridement and scar remodelling.
This results in a neuropathic ulcer. Neuroischaemic feet loose protective sweating, have nail dystrophy, thin dry skin and red localised pressure damage, which causes ulcers.(7) Ischaemia favorite in the diabetic foot can result from microvascular complications including; basement membrane thickening, thrombosis and fragile capillary walls. Atherosclerosis (a macrovascular complication) can also result in ischaemia particularly in the foot and calf.(6). Foot ulceration can result in infection which can delay healing and cause deterioration of the wound. There are three stages of infection. Superficial and local, cellulitis (soft tissue and spreading osteomyelitis (Infection of the bone). Development of osteomyelitis occurs in 30-40 of foot puncture injuries in diabetics.(11). Impaired healing, the healing process in diabetic patients chronic wounds is impaired.
the uk to.3. (6, 7) Survival of more than 5 years for diabetics who have had an ulcer.(8) diabetic risk for amputation of lower extremities is twenty times that of non-diabetics, which carries a perioperative mortality rate of 10-15.(6, 8) Six-hundred-and-thirty-eight million pounds to 662 million. Patients who are subjected to ulcers and amputations have a reduced quality of life; mainly due to reduced mobility and the consequence of having to change their lifestyle.(8, 9) routine tasks such as bathing are affected with patients finding these greatly affected by their loss. Around 50 of patients with ulcers are unable to work due to their ulcer. Sleep disturbance, suffering from antibiotic side effects, social isolation and depression are also reported.(9) Other suggestions for the reduced quality of life includes extreme pain, visits to the clinic, hospitalisation and frequent dressing changes.(8) Randomised controlled trials have suggested patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (8) It is imperative that treatment and prevention of diabetic foot ulcers improves to reduce the time mobility is restricted, the psychological effects and carer dependency.(9). Ulcer pathology, nerve damage occurs in diabetes resulting in sensation loss (neuropathy). This leads to patients not recognising ulcers/injury.(6, 8) Normal foot movement is controlled by muscles which are affected by motor neuropathy in patients with diabetes.(6) Thickening of the skin (callus) puts pressure on the soft tissue.(10) Consequently, breakdown of the subcutaneous tissue and skin occurs.
Patients will be recruited from three manchester university hospitals. Research will be conducted by The University of Manchester. Implications to public health, after ulcer formation, survival rates for more than 5 years and quality of life are low. The cost to the nhs of diabetic foot ulcers and consequent amputations is vast. If oestrogen cream improves ulcer healing the benefits to the nhs and the individual patients would be huge. Diabetes, globally an increase in diabetic cases is expected; in 2011 there were 366 million cases, which is predicted to reach 552 million in 2030.(1) In 2005 there were an estimated.26 million patients with diabetes in England alone. In 2025 this number is estimated to rise.4 million making the total number of cases.6 million, with type 2 diabetes accounting for around 85 of diabetic patients. (2, 3) In every country the number of type 2 diabetics is growing.(1) diabetes costs the national health Service (NHS) 14 billion per year which is set to increase with the number of cases.(4). Poorly managed diabetes can lead to serious complications such as chronic heart disease and diabetic neuropathy.(5) Per patient each year complications cost the nhs 1,800 to 2,500.(4).
Life sciences essay on type 2 diabetes
Introduction, the shredder number of diabetes cases is increasing globally. Due to a lack of feeling, the foot wounds of patients with diabetes often go unnoticed and escalate to ulcers, infections and amputations. Oestrogen cream has been shown to aid healing of chronic wounds, in the elderly and in animal diabetes models. The proposed trial will explore the possibility of oestrogen cream aiding the healing process of diabetic ulcers which currently have no effective treatment. Aims, the aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of oestrogen cream on wound healing in patients with type 2 diabetes. The overall aim is to improve ulcer prognosis and prevent amputations. Method, we will conduct a randomised controlled trial using ulcer area as a measure.