Such low-level user analytic activities are presented in the following table. The taxonomy can also be organized by three poles of activities: retrieving values, finding data points, and arranging data points. Task general Description Pro forma Abstract Examples 1 Retrieve value given a set of specific cases, find attributes of those cases. What are the values of attributes x, y,. In the data cases a, b, c,? what is the mileage per gallon of the ford Mondeo? how long is the movie gone with the wind?

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In turn, total revenue can be analyzed by its components, such as revenue of divisions a, b, and C (which are mutually exclusive of each other) and should add to the total revenue (collectively exhaustive). Analysts lezvov may use robust statistical measurements to solve certain analytical problems. Hypothesis testing is used when a particular hypothesis about the true state of affairs is made by the analyst and data is gathered to determine whether that state of affairs is true or false. For example, the hypothesis might be that "Unemployment has no effect on inflation which relates to an economics concept called the Phillips Curve. Hypothesis testing involves considering the likelihood of Type i and type ii errors, which relate to whether the data supports accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. Regression analysis may be used when the analyst is trying to determine the extent to which independent variable x affects dependent variable y (e.g., "To what extent do changes in the unemployment rate (X) affect the inflation rate (Y)? This is an attempt to model or fit an equation line or curve to the data, such that y is a function. Necessary condition analysis (NCA) may be used when the analyst is trying to determine the extent to which independent variable x allows variable y (e.g., "To what extent is a certain unemployment rate (X) necessary for a certain inflation rate (Y)? Whereas (multiple) regression analysis uses additive logic where each x-variable can produce the outcome and the x's can compensate for each other (they are sufficient but not necessary necessary condition analysis (NCA) uses necessity logic, where one or more x-variables allow the outcome to exist. Each single necessary condition must be present and compensation is not possible. Analytical activities of data users edit Users may have particular data points of interest within a data set, as opposed to general messaging outlined above.

7 For the variables under examination, analysts typically obtain descriptive statistics for them, such as the mean (average median, and standard deviation. They may also analyze the distribution of the key variables to see how the individual values cluster around the mean. An illustration of the mece essay principle used for data analysis. The consultants at McKinsey and Company named a technique for breaking a quantitative problem down into its component parts called the mece principle. Each layer can be broken down into its components; each of the sub-components must be mutually exclusive of each other and collectively add up to the layer above them. The relationship is referred to as "Mutually Exclusive and Collectively Exhaustive" or mece. For example, profit by definition can be broken down into total revenue and total cost.

Correlation: Comparison between observations represented by two variables (X,Y) to determine if they tend to move in the same or opposite directions. For example, plotting unemployment (X) and inflation (Y) for a sample of months. A scatter plot is typically used for this message. Nominal comparison: Comparing categorical subdivisions in no particular order, such as the sales volume by product code. A bar chart may be used for this comparison. Geographic or geospatial: Comparison of a variable across a map or layout, such as the unemployment rate by state or the number of persons on the various floors of a building. A cartogram is a typical graphic used. 12 13 Techniques for analyzing quantitative data edit see also: Problem solving Author Jonathan koomey has recommended a series of best practices for understanding quantitative data. These include: Check raw data for anomalies prior to performing your analysis; re-perform important calculations, such as verifying columns of data that are formula driven; Confirm main totals are the sum of subtotals; Check relationships between numbers that should diary be related in a predictable way.

Ranking: Categorical subdivisions are ranked in ascending or descending order, such as a ranking of sales performance (the measure ) by sales persons (the category, with each sales person a categorical subdivision ) during a single period. A bar chart may be used to show the comparison across the sales persons. Part-to-whole: Categorical subdivisions are measured as a ratio to the whole (i.e., a percentage out of 100). A pie chart or bar chart can show the comparison of ratios, such as the market share represented by competitors in a market. Deviation: Categorical subdivisions are compared against a reference, such as a comparison of actual. Budget expenses for several departments of a business for a given time period. A bar chart can show comparison of the actual versus the reference amount. Frequency distribution: Shows the number of observations of a particular variable for given interval, such as the number of years in which the stock market return is between intervals such as 010, 1120, etc. A histogram, a type of bar chart, may be used for this analysis.

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The users may have feedback, which results in additional analysis. As such, much of the analytical cycle is iterative. 4 When determining how to communicate the results, the analyst may consider data visualization techniques to help clearly and efficiently communicate the message to the audience. Data visualization uses information displays (such as tables and charts) to help communicate key messages contained in the data. Tables are helpful to a user who might lookup specific numbers, while charts (e.g., bar charts or line charts) may help explain the quantitative messages contained in the data. Quantitative messages edit main article: Data visualization A time series illustrated with a line chart demonstrating trends.

Federal spending and revenue over time. A scatterplot illustrating correlation between two variables (inflation and unemployment) measured at points done in time. Stephen Few described eight types of quantitative messages that users may attempt to understand or communicate from a set of data and the associated graphs used to help communicate the message. Customers specifying requirements and analysts performing the data analysis may consider these messages during the course of the process. Time-series: A single variable is captured over a period of time, such as the unemployment rate over a 10-year period. A line chart may be used to demonstrate the trend.

Descriptive statistics, such as the average or median, may be generated to help understand the data. Data visualization may also be used to examine the data in graphical format, to obtain additional insight regarding the messages within the data. 4 Modeling and algorithms edit mathematical formulas or models called algorithms may be applied to the data to identify relationships among the variables, such as correlation or causation. In general terms, models may be developed to evaluate a particular variable in the data based on other variable(s) in the data, with some residual error depending on model accuracy (i.e., data model Error). 2 Inferential statistics includes techniques to measure relationships between particular variables. For example, regression analysis may be used to model whether a change in advertising (independent variable X) explains the variation in sales (dependent variable Y).

In mathematical terms, y (sales) is a function of X (advertising). It may be described as y ax b error, where the model is designed such that a and b minimize the error when the model predicts Y for a given range of values. Analysts may attempt to build models that are descriptive of the data to simplify analysis and communicate results. 2 Data product edit a data product is a computer application that takes data inputs and generates outputs, feeding them back into the environment. It may be based on a model or algorithm. An example is an application that analyzes data about customer purchasing history and recommends other purchases the customer might enjoy. 4 Communication edit main article: Data visualization Once the data is analyzed, it may be reported in many formats to the users of the analysis to support their requirements.

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For example, with financial information, the totals for particular variables may be compared against separately published numbers believed to be reliable. 7 Unusual amounts above or below pre-determined thresholds may also be reviewed. There are several types of data cleaning that depend on the type of data such as phone numbers, email addresses, employers etc. Quantitative data methods for outlier detection can be used to get rid of likely incorrectly entered data. Textual data spell checkers can be used to lessen the amount of mistyped words, but it is harder to tell if the words themselves are correct. 8 Exploratory data analysis edit Once the data is cleaned, it can be analyzed. Analysts may apply a variety of techniques referred to as exploratory data analysis to begin understanding the messages contained in the data. 9 10 word The process of exploration may result in additional data cleaning or additional requests for data, so these activities may be iterative in nature.

4 Data processing edit The phases of the intelligence cycle used to convert raw information into actionable intelligence or having knowledge are conceptually similar to the phases in data analysis. Data initially obtained must be processed or organised for analysis. For instance, these may involve placing data into rows and columns in a table format (i.e., structured data ) for further analysis, such as within a spreadsheet or statistical software. 4 Data cleaning edit Once processed and organised, the data may be incomplete, contain duplicates, or contain errors. The need for data cleaning will arise from problems in the way that data is entered and stored. Data cleaning is the process of preventing and correcting these errors. Common tasks include record matching, identifying inaccuracy of data, overall quality of existing data, 5 deduplication, and column segmentation. 6 Such data problems can also be identified through a variety of analytical techniques.

all the machinery and results. The phases are iterative, in that feedback from later phases may result in additional work in earlier phases. 4 Data requirements edit The data is necessary as inputs to the analysis, which is specified based upon the requirements of those directing the analysis or customers (who will use the finished product of the analysis). The general type of entity upon which the data will be collected is referred to as an experimental unit (e.g., a person or population of people). Specific variables regarding a population (e.g., age and income) may be specified and obtained. Data may be numerical or categorical (i.e., a text label for numbers). 4 Data collection edit data is collected from a variety of sources. The requirements may be communicated by analysts to custodians of the data, such as information technology personnel within an organization. The data may also be collected from sensors in the environment, such as traffic cameras, satellites, recording devices, etc. It may also be obtained through interviews, downloads from online sources, or reading documentation.

Data integration is a precursor to data analysis, according to whom? and data analysis is closely linked how? to data visualization and data dissemination. The term data analysis is sometimes used as a synonym for data modeling. Contents, the process of data analysis edit, data science process flowchart from "Doing Data Science cathy o'neil and Rachel Schutt, 2013. Analysis refers to breaking a whole into its separate components for individual examination. Data analysis is a process for obtaining raw data and converting it into information useful for decision-making by users. Data is collected and analyzed to answer questions, test hypotheses or disprove theories.

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Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, with transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, informing conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, while being used in different business, science, and social science domains. Data mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing mainly on business information. 1, in statistical applications, data analysis can be divided into descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis (eda and confirmatory data analysis (CDA). Eda focuses on discovering new features in the data while cda focuses on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses. Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data. All of the above are varieties of data analysis.

stages (research, hypothesis, falsification, experiment, repetition, peer review, etc. bourdieu recommends also that the scientist. advances the hypothesis that Jesus saw himself in messianic terms but did not claim the title messiah.313 Bart Ehrman argues that. galactic alignment hypothesis argued that, just as astrology uses the positions of stars and planets to make claims of future events. Extraterrestrial hypothesis Cryptoterrestrial hypothesis Israel isa iran isa.

What is an isa? An isa is a controlled assessment. It tests your science skills. You need to complete one for each gcse in science. the previous August, he had been reported by the bbc to have claimed that paul was working for the security services and that one.

Science coursework - isas. Your teacher will suggest as method for the investigation as you will not be assessed on this Then you. What does it mean for the predator satiation hypothesis? Happily now at last there isa welcome and growing trend among scholars to view the pentateuchas a literary unit again. instituto socioambiental, isa, socioenvironmental Institute, the Instituto de pesquisas da AmazĂ´nia ipam amazonian Research.

S daughter, Isa, dick hackett, is in advanced negotiation.53 Ubik was set to be made into a film by michel Gondry.54 In 2014. taevas sky, isa father) is the word by which adherents in Estonia of the maausk (faith of the land) and the taara native beliefs. are there exceptions to the relationship between horsepower and acceleration? and I commanded all their host (. 45:12).' In the bible this verb is used to describe the stretching out (pitching) of a tent. quest for security, and conflicts can arise from the inability to distinguish defense from offense, which is called the security.