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Cuneiform script edit middle babylonian legal tablet from Alalah in its envelope main article: Cuneiform script The original Sumerian writing system derives from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the 4th millennium bc, this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers. This was gradually augmented with pictographic writing by using a sharp stylus to indicate what was being counted. Round-stylus and sharp-stylus writing were gradually replaced around bc by writing using a wedge-shaped stylus (hence the term cuneiform at first only for logograms, but developed to include phonetic elements by the 29th century. About 2600 bc, cuneiform began to represent syllables of the sumerian language. Finally, cuneiform writing became a general purpose writing system for logograms, syllables, and numbers.

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Bronze age writing edit further information: History of the word alphabet Writing emerged in many different cultures in the Bronze age. Examples are the cuneiform writing of the sumerians, egyptian hieroglyphs, cretan hieroglyphs, chinese logographs, Indus script, and the Olmec script of Mesoamerica. The Chinese script likely developed independently of the middle eastern scripts around 1600. The pre-columbian Mesoamerican writing systems (including Olmec and maya scripts ) are also generally believed to have had independent origins. It is thought that the first true alphabetic writing was developed around 2000 bc for Semitic workers in the sinai by giving mostly Egyptian hieratic glyphs Semitic values (see history of the alphabet and Proto-sinaitic alphabet ). The ge'ez writing system of Ethiopia is considered Semitic. It is likely to be of semi-independent origin, having roots in the meroitic Sudanese ideogram system. 17 Most other alphabets in the world today either descended from this one innovation, many via the Phoenician alphabet, or were directly inspired by its design. In Italy, about 500 years passed from the early Old Italic alphabet to Plautus (750 to 250 bc and in the case of the germanic peoples, the corresponding time span is again similar, from the first Elder Futhark inscriptions to early texts like the Abrogans. Ad 200 to 750).

The vinča signs show an evolution of simple symbols, beginning in the 7th millennium bc, gradually increasing in complexity throughout the 6th millennium and culminating in the tărtăria tablets. 5300 bc 13 with their rows of symbols carefully aligned, evoking the impression of a text. The dispilio tablet of the late 6th millennium is similar. The hieroglyphic scripts of the Ancient near East (Egyptian, sumerian proto-cuneiform, and Cretan) seamlessly emerge from such symbol systems so that it is difficult to say at what exact time writing developed from proto-writing. Further, very little is known about the symbols' meanings. Even after the neolithic, several cultures went through an intermediate fuller stage of proto-writing before they used proper writing. The " Slavic runes " from the 7th and 8th centuries ad, mentioned by a few medieval authors, may have been such a system. The quipu of the Incas (15th century ad sometimes called "talking knots may have been of a similar nature. Another example is the pictographs invented by uyaquk before the development of the yugtun syllabary (c.

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Most of the thesis signs were separately inscribed on different shells. 14 The first writing systems of the early Bronze age were not a sudden invention. Rather, they were a development based on earlier traditions of symbol systems that cannot be classified as proper writing but have many of the characteristics of writing. These systems may be described as "proto-writing." They used ideographic or early mnemonic symbols to convey information, but it probably directly contained no natural language. These systems emerged in the early neolithic period, as early as the 7th millennium bc evidenced by the jiahu symbols in China. In 2003, tortoise shells were found in 24 neolithic graves excavated at jiahu, henan province, northern China, with radiocarbon dates from the 7th millennium. According to some archaeologists, the symbols carved on the shells had similarities to the late 2nd millennium bc oracle bone script. 15 Most archaeologists have dismissed this claim as insufficiently substantiated, claiming that simple geometric designs, such as those found on the jiahu shells, cannot be linked to early writing. 16 Other neolithic signs have also been found in China.

The same is true of some of the early Egyptian hieroglyphics and the thousands of ancient Chinese government records. The history of literature begins with the history of writing. Scholars have disagreed concerning when written record-keeping became more like literature than anything else, but "literature" can have several meanings. The term could be applied broadly to mean any symbolic record from images and sculptures to letters. The oldest surviving literary texts date from a full millennium after the invention of writing to the late 3rd millennium. The earliest literary authors known by name are Ptahhotep (who wrote in Egyptian ) and Enheduanna (who wrote in Sumerian dating to around the 24th and 23rd centuries bc, respectively. In the early literate societies, as much as 600 years passed from the first inscriptions to the first coherent textual sources:. E., from around 3100 to 2600. Locations and timeframes edit Proto-writing edit main article: Proto-writing Further information: Prehistoric numerals see also: History of communication Examples of the jiahu symbols, markings found on tortoise shells, dated around 6000.

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Pictographic: glyphs directly represent an object or a concept such as (A) chronological, (B) notices, (C) communications, (D) totems, titles, and names, (E) religious, (F) customs, (G) historical, and (H) biographical. Ideographic: graphemes are abstract symbols that directly represent an idea or concept. Transitional system : graphemes refer not only to the presentation object or idea that it represents but to its name as well. Phonetic system : graphemes refer to sounds or spoken symbols, and the form of the grapheme is not related to its meanings. This resolves itself into the following substages: Verbal: grapheme ( logogram ) represents a whole word.

Syllabic: grapheme represents a syllable. Alphabetic: grapheme represents an elementary sound. The best known picture writing system of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols are: In the Old World, true writing systems developed from neolithic writing in the early Bronze age ( 4th millennium bc ). The sumerian archaic (pre- cuneiform ) writing and the Egyptian hieroglyphs are generally considered the earliest true writing systems, both emerging out of their ancestral proto-literate ireland symbol systems from bc, with earliest coherent texts from about 2600. Literature and writing edit literature and writing, though obviously connected, are not synonymous. The very first writings from ancient Sumer by any reasonable definition do not constitute literature.

However the development of writing systems, and their partial supplantation of traditional oral systems of communication, have been sporadic, uneven, and slow. Once established, writing systems on the whole change more slowly than their spoken counterparts and often preserve features and expressions that no longer exist in the spoken language. The greatest benefit of writing is that it provides the tool by which society can record information consistently and in greater detail, something that could not be achieved as well previously by spoken word. Writing allows societies to transmit information and to share knowledge. Recorded history edit main articles: Recorded history and Early literature Scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing 10 but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto-writing became "true writing." The definition is largely subjective.


11 Writing, in its most general terms, is a method of recording information and is composed of graphemes, which may in turn be composed of glyphs. 12 The emergence of writing in a given area is usually followed by several centuries of fragmentary inscriptions. Historians mark the "historicity" of a culture by the presence of coherent texts in the culture's writing system(s). 10 The invention of writing was not a one-time event but was a gradual process initiated by the appearance of symbols, possibly first for cultic purposes. Developmental stages edit a conventional "proto-writing to true writing" system follows a general series of developmental stages: Picture writing system : glyphs (simplified pictures) directly represent objects and concepts. In connection with this, the following substages may be distinguished: Mnemonic: glyphs primarily as a reminder.

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The oldest example is from 1851, 139 years after their first contact with Europeans. One explanation is that the script was inspired by Spain 's written annexation proclamation in 1770. 9 Various other known cases of cultural diffusion of writing exist, where the general concept of writing was transmitted from one culture to another, but the specifics of the system were independently developed. Recent examples are the Cherokee syllabary, invented by sequoyah, book and the pahawh Hmong system for writing the Hmong language. Vinča symbols which are dated around 5,500 bce, are a remnant of Vinča culture which have been proposed to have created a script a millenia before those in the middle east. Writing systems edit main article: Writing system Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. In contrast, symbolic systems, such as information signs, painting, maps, and mathematics, often do not require prior knowledge of a spoken language. Every human community possesses language, a feature regarded by many as an innate and defining condition of mankind (see origin of language ).

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by sumerian writing via a process of cultural diffusion. That is, it is possible that the concept of representing language by using writing, though not necessarily the specifics of how such a system worked, was passed on by traders or merchants traveling between the two regions. Ancient Chinese characters are considered by many to be an independent invention because there is no evidence of contact between ancient China and the literate civilizations of the near East, 5 and because of the distinct differences between the mesopotamian and Chinese approaches to logography. 6 Egyptian script is dissimilar from Mesopotamian cuneiform, but similarities in concepts and in earliest attestation suggest that the idea of writing may have come to Egypt from Mesopotamia. 7 In 1999, Archaeology magazine reported that the earliest Egyptian glyphs date back to 3400 bc, which "challenge the commonly held belief that early logographs, pictographic symbols representing a specific place, object, or quantity, first evolved into more complex phonetic symbols in Mesopotamia." 8 Similar. In addition, the script is still undeciphered, and there is debate about whether the script is true writing at all or, instead, some kind of proto-writing or nonlinguistic sign system. An additional possibility is the undeciphered Rongorongo script of Easter Island. It is debated whether this is true writing and, if it is, whether it is another case of cultural diffusion of writing.

Mesopotamia, is believed to be the place where written language was first invented around 3100. Writing numbers pdf for the purpose of record keeping began long before the writing of language. History of writing ancient numbers for how the writing of numbers began. It is generally agreed that true writing of language (not only numbers) was independently conceived and developed in at least two ancient civilizations and possibly more. The two places where it is most certain that the concept of writing was both conceived and developed independently are in ancient. Sumer (in, mesopotamia around 3100 bc, and. Mesoamerica by 300 bc, 3 because no precursors have been found to either of these in their respective regions. Mesoamerican scripts are known, the oldest being from the. Olmec or, zapotec of, mexico.

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The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks 1 and also the studies and descriptions of these developments. In guaranteed the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. True writing, in which the content of a linguistic utterance is encoded so that another reader can reconstruct, with a fair degree of accuracy, the exact utterance written down, is a later development. It is distinguished from proto-writing, which typically avoids encoding grammatical words and affixes, making it more difficult or impossible to reconstruct the exact meaning intended by the writer unless a great deal of context is already known in advance. One of the earliest forms of written expression is cuneiform. 2, contents, inventions of writing edit, see also: List of languages by first written accounts. Sumer, an ancient civilization of southern.


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