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This was only one sixteenth of the total ram space that the 6502 processor could address, but recall that memory in 1976 was very expensive. Since the 6502 processor must have at least the bottom 512 bytes of memory accessible for its operations (the zero page and stack this 4K covered memory locations 0000-0fff (0-4095 decimal; the was commonly used in 6502 systems to refer to hexadecimal numbers). An 8K system would run from 0000-1fff (0-8191 decimal). However, if Apple basic was to be used, a hardware modification had to be made to the motherboard in order to move (logically) the 2nd 4K bank of ram up to E000-efff (which was where basic was designed to operate). Apple -1 basic manual Photo credit: joe torzewski according to the Apple -1 Cassette Interface manual, it was necessary to make another change to the motherboard in order to use the interface. Besides removing the jumper that relocated the 2nd 4K of ram, another jumper had to be added to the motherboard in one place.

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Wozniak demonstrated a prototype of the Apple ii with his color Breakout game running, and veit felt that it clearly had resume better graphics than the Cromemco dazzler (a popular add-on for S-100 bus on the Altair and imsai computers). Jobs told him that they were dropping the Apple -1 in favor of the better Apple ii, but veit strongly urged him to fulfill the committment they had made to their customers (and the dealers who purchased Apple -1 boards to sell) in delivering. He felt that this would be vital to their reputation and any future success the company might have. They were offered space at pc 76, a national computer show to be held in Atlantic City, new Jersey on August 28, 1976, and so the two Steves packed up demonstration models of the Apple -1 and flew out to join Stan veits display okay booth. Using the hotel television, wozniak put the finishing touches on his Apple basic interpreter to make it ready for its official introduction. With several Apple -1 computers in operation at the show, the small size and speed of its cassette interface attracted quite a bit of attention, in spite of the fact that there were two other 6502-based computers on display at the show (the kim-1 and. By the end of the show, jobs had taken twenty orders from dealers for the Apple -1. Hardware/firmware the Apple -1 motherboard was designed in such a way as to make it possible for the hobbyist to remove the 6502 processor and use a motorola 6800 as the cpu instead. This was not a trivial operation, as the 65 were not pin-compatible (the earlier 6501 was pin-compatible, but was withdrawn after Motorola sued mos technology). However, some other hardware would need to be added, and the software needed to operate it would be completely different. The least expensive apple -1 motherboard was sold with 4K of ram.

O.D.) they parts had a working computer that was more compact and used fewer chips on the motherboard than every other microcomputer they had yet seen. Along with the keyboard Jobs had included their cassette interface, and a tape of the game Of Life program. Apple -1 Logo Impressed with this compact computer, veit had his techs install the Apple -1 in an attache case, and along with a 9-inch monitor and keyboard, he and his wife attended a dinner meeting of the new York Chapter of the Association for. Most of those attending were involved with large computers (mainframes or minicomputers) but the acm had invited computer dealers in the area to attend and show their products. Veit set up the Apple -1 and started the game Of Life, so that during the meeting it was visible to the speaker at the podium. When the speaker interrupted himself to ask veit what was running on the monitor, he did not believe that there could actually be a computer in that briefcase. Some of those attending were sure that the machine was just a portable terminal, attached by a hidden phone line to a mainframe somewhere! Later, during the product demonstration part of the meeting, the Apple -1 caused quite a lot of excitement amongst the other dealers present. Veit later traveled to california and met Jobs and wozniak in their garage operation.

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However, it ran at 1200 baud (most microcomputer cassette interfaces in 19 ran at only 300 baud) and was general more consistently successful at getting a good load into memory when compared to other computers of the day. To further try to enhance sales, the byte Shop stores found a local cabinetmaker that made some koa-wood cases for the Apple computer (so it would no longer be just a naked circuit board)., Apple -1 Cassette interface card Although most of the design and. In 1976, Stan veit opened The computer Mart in New York city, and had the east coasts first computer store. Operating first out of a part of Polks Hobby department Store in midtown Manhattan, and moving later to a larger store on Madison avenue, he sold the imsai 8080, the Sphere and southwest Technical Products M6800 (both Motorola 6800-based computers and others. Paul Terrell of the byte Shop referred Steve jobs to veit, and after a phone call with fast-talking Jobs on the phone, a 500. Package appeared friend on the doorstep of The computer Mart. Veit showed it to one of his techs, who didnt believe that something that small (sixteen by twelve inches) could be a computer. Nevertheless, after attaching a power supply and keyboard (they had to call Jobs about the keyboard, and he gladly sent one out, also.

Steve wozniak would have to type in about 3K of hexadecimal bytes before basic was ready to use. He could do it in about 20 to 30 minutes, but he almost knew the code by heart. The typical user was more limited in ability to use basic on the Apple -1. To broaden the appeal of the Apple -1 (and at the insistence of paul Terrell wozniak designed a cassette interface. It was mounted on a small two-inch-high printed circuit board and plugged into the single slot on the motherboard. The card sold for 75 and a cassette tape of wozs basic was included with. The advertisement Apple included with the card stated, our philosophy is to provide software for our machines free or at minimal cost. The interface worked, but it was tricky to get volume and tone on the cassette player properly adjusted to successfully load from cassettes.

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Besides, they couldnt come up with a better name. Apple -1 Advertisment Jobs approached the owner of a new computer store in the bay area called The byte Shop. This businessman, paul Terrell, expressed an interest in the Apple computer (to be known later as the apple i on their price lists, and Apple -1 in the computers manuals but wanted only fully assembled computers to sell. If they could provide this, terrell told them he would order fifty Apples, and pay mask cash on delivery. Suddenly, the cost of making (and selling) this computer was considerably more than they expected. Jobs and wozniak managed to get the parts on net 30 days (30 days credit without interest and set themselves up in Jobs garage for assembly and testing of the Apple -1.

After marathon sessions of stuffing and soldering pc boards, jobs delivered the computers to the byte Shop. Although these fully assembled computers lacked a power supply, keyboard, or monitor, terrell bought them as promised. In July of 1976 the Apple -1 was released and sold for 666.66, which was about twice the cost of the parts plus a 33 dealer markup. Two hundred Apple -1 computers were manufactured, and all except twenty-five of them sold over a period of ten months. Although the Apple -1 was easier to begin buy using than the Altair (thanks to its built-in rom code it was still a time consuming process to set it up to do something useful.

The power supply had to be connected to two transformers to get 5 volts and 12 volts for the motherboard. There was no speaker, no graphics, and no color. There was a single peripheral slot, and when it was first released there was nothing available to plug into this slot. It was entirely contained on a single printed circuit board, only sixteen by twelve inches in size (most hobby computers of that time needed at least two boards used only 30 or 40 chips, and because it could run basic programs it got peoples attention. Marketing apple computer Company logo by early 1976, Steve wozniak had completed his 6502-based computer and would display enhancements or modifications at the bi-weekly homebrew Computer Club meetings.

Steve jobs was a 21 year old friend of wozniaks and also a visitor at the homebrew club. He had worked with wozniak in the past (together they designed the arcade game breakout for Atari) and was very interested in his computer. During the design process Jobs made suggestions that helped shape the final product, such as the use of the newer dynamic rams instead of older, more expensive static ram. He suggested to wozniak that they get some printed circuit boards made for the computer and sell it at the club for people to assemble themselves. They pooled their financial resources together to have pc boards made, and on April 1st, 1976 they officially formed the Apple computer Company. Jobs had recently worked at an organic apple orchard, and liked the name because he thought of the apple as the perfect fruitit has a high nutritional content, it comes in a nice package, it doesnt damage easilyand he wanted Apple to be the perfect.

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Apple -1 Display, because there were no cheap ram chips available, wozniak used shift registers to send text to the tv screen. Consequently, his video terminal was somewhat slow, displaying characters at about 60 characters per second, one character per scan of the tv screen. (This essay speed would be similar to watching a computer communicate via a modem at 1200 baud). It was slow by todays standards, but an advancement over the teletypes that could only type 10 characters per second. If the board was fully populated, it had 8K of dynamic ram, allowing room to load basic into 4K of memory and have a little less than 4K left over for the users programs. It had a video connector, but it was up to the owner to connect a monitor. Also, a keyboard was not included and so had to be purchased separately and then wired into a 16-pin dip connector.

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To make the computer easier to use, wozniak favored a keyboard over the front panel switches that came on the Altair. He also made it simple to use a television for a video terminal. (Recall that at this time the most common mechanism used for input/output was a teletype, which consisted of a keyboard, typewriter, and if you were lucky, a paper tape reader/puncher). Functionally, it was a television terminal attached to a computer, all on one printed circuit board (another enhancement over the Altair). Wozniak used two 256 x 4 prom ( programmable read-only memory ) chips to create a 256 byte program (called a monitor) that looked at the keyboard when the computer was turned. This monitor program could not do much more than allow entry of hex bytes, examine a range of memory, and run a program at a specific address. (The Altair needed these bootstrapping instructions to be entered by hand each time the computer was turned on).

a chip that was almost identical to the 6800, while considerably cheaper. Mos technology sold their 6502 chip for 25, as opposed to the 175 Motorola 6800. Wozniak decided to change his choice of processor to the 6502 and began writing a version of basic that would run. A friend over at Hewlett-Packard programmed a computer to simulate the function of the 6502, and wozniak used it to test some of his early routines. When his basic interpreter was finished, he turned his attention to designing the computer he could run. Except for some small timing differences, he was able to use the hardware design he had earlier done on paper for the 6800. Mos technologies 6502 chip Photo credit: Larry nelson.

Altair was built around the 8080 and its early popularity spawned a cottage industry of small companies that either made machines that would run programs written for the Altair or paper made attachments that would plug into the computer. The private peculiarities of microprocessors meant that a program or device designed for one would not work on another. The junction of these peripheral devices for the Altair was known as the s-100 bus because it used one hundred signal lines. Disciples of the 8080 formed religious attachments to the 8080 and S-100 even though they readily admitted that the latter was poorly designed. The people who wrote programs or built peripherals for 8080 computers thought that later, competing microprocessors were doomed. The sheer weight of the programs and the choice of peripherals, so the argument went, would make it more useful to more users and more profitable for more companies. The 8080, they liked to say, had critical mass which was sufficient to consign anything else to oblivion.

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Development, apple -1 at Smithsonian (see here for a portuguese translation of this page). At the, homebrew Computer club in Palo Alto, california (in Silicon Valley steve wozniak, a 26 year old employee. Hewlett-Packard and a long-time digital electronics hacker, had been wanting to build a computer of his own for a long time. For years he had designed many on paper, and even written, fortran compilers and, basic interpreters for these theoretical machines, but a lack of money kept him owl from carrying out his desire. He looked at the. Intel 8080 chip (the heart of the, altair but at 179 decided he couldnt afford. A decision to not use the 8080 was considered foolhardy by other members of the club. Consider this description of the microcomputer world as it was in the summer of 1975: That summer at the homebrew Club the Intel 8080 formed the center of the universe.

Apple writing paper
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Kyoto Two color Jungle new. On Happiness Essay research Paper Not many people are happy but all the libraries are filled with books on happiness and this very fact should make us curious The Ancients gave us dozens of recipes on how to conduct a happy life each of them. The articles listed below are offered as resources for teachers and counselors.

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  1. At the homebrew Computer club in Palo Alto, california (in Silicon Valley steve wozniak, a 26 year old employee of Hewlett-Packard and a long-time digital electronics hacker, had been wanting to build a computer of his own for a long time).

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