Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy." 48 Tony tone, a member of the cold Crush Brothers. 48 For inner-city youth, participating in hip hop culture became a way of dealing with the hardships of life as minorities within America, and an outlet to deal with the risk of violence and the rise of gang culture. Mc kid Lucky mentions that "people used to break-dance against each other instead of fighting". 49 50 Inspired by dj kool Herc, Afrika bambaataa created a street organization called Universal Zulu nation, centered around hip hop, as a means to draw teenagers out of gang life, drugs and violence. 48 The lyrical content of many early rap groups focused on social issues, most notably in the seminal track "The message" by Grandmaster Flash and the furious five, which discussed the realities of life in the housing projects. 51 "Young black Americans coming out of the civil rights movement have used hip hop culture in the 1980s and 1990s to show the limitations of the hip hop movement." 52 Hip hop gave young African Americans a voice to let their issues be heard;. 52 It also gave people a chance for financial gain by "reducing the rest of the world to consumers of its social concerns.", debbie harry of Blondie took nile rodgers of Chic to such an event, as the main backing track used was the break.
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Popular tunes included Kurtis Blow 's " The Breaks " and The sugarhill Gang 's " Rapper's Delight ". 40 Herc and other DJs would connect their equipment to power lines and perform at venues such as public basketball courts and at 1520 Sedgwick avenue, bronx, new York, now officially a historic building. 41 The equipment consisted of numerous speakers, turntables, and one or more microphones. 42 by using this technique, djs could create a variety of music, but according to rap Attack by david toop "At its worst the technique could turn the night into one endless and inevitably boring song". 43 kc the Prince of soul, a rapper-lyricist with Pete dj jones, is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an "MC". 44 Street gangs were prevalent in the poverty of the south Bronx, and much of the graffiti, rapping, and b-boying at these parties were all artistic variations on the competition and one-upmanship of street gangs. Sensing that gang members' often violent urges could be turned into creative ones, Afrika bambaataa founded the zulu nation, a loose confederation of street-dance crews, personality graffiti artists, and rap musicians. By the late 1970s, the culture had gained media attention, with Billboard magazine printing an article titled "b beats Bombarding Bronx commenting on the local phenomenon and mentioning influential figures such as kool Herc. 45 The new York city blackout of 1977 saw widespread looting, arson, and other citywide disorders especially in the Bronx 46 where a number of looters stole dj equipment from electronics stores. As a result, the hip hop genre, barely known outside of the Bronx at the time, grew at an astounding meeting rate from 1977 onward. Dj kool Herc 's house parties gained popularity and later moved to outdoor venues in order to accommodate more people.
36 presentation Herc also developed upon break-beat deejaying, 37 where the breaks of funk songs—the part most suited to dance, usually percussion-based—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties. This form of music playback, using hard funk and rock, formed the basis of hip hop music. Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers would lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known as rapping. He dubbed his dancers "break-boys" and "break-girls or simply b-boys and b-girls. According to herc, "breaking" was also street slang for "getting excited" and "acting energetically". 38 DJs such as Grand wizzard Theodore, grandmaster Flash, and jazzy jay refined and developed the use of breakbeats, including cutting and scratching. 39 The approach used by herc was soon widely copied, and by the late 1970s, djs were releasing 12-inch records where they would rap to the beat.
Mcing and rapping performers moved back and forth between the predominance of "toasting" songs packed with a mix of boasting, 'slackness' and sexual innuendo and a more topical, political, socially conscious style. The role of the mc originally was as a master of Ceremonies for a dj dance event. The mc would introduce the dj and try to pump up the audience. The mc spoke between the dj's songs, urging everyone to get up and dance. MCs would also tell jokes and use their energetic language and enthusiasm to rev up the crowd. Eventually, this introducing role developed into longer sessions of spoken, rhythmic wordplay, and rhyming, which became rapping. By 1979 hip hop music had become a mainstream genre. It spread across the world in the 1990s with controversial first "gangsta" rap.
33 On August 11, 1973, dj kool Herc was the dj at his sister's back-to-school party. He extended the beat of a record by using two record players, isolating the percussion "breaks" by using a mixer to switch between the two records. Herc's experiments with making music with record players became what we now know as breaking or " scratching ". 34 A second key musical element in hip hop music is emceeing (also called mcing or rapping). Emceeing is the rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay, delivered at first without accompaniment and later done over a beat. This spoken style was influenced by the African American style of "capping a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners. 35 The basic elements of hip hop—boasting raps, rival "posses" (groups uptown "throw-downs and political and social commentary—were all long present in African American music.
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26 Hip hop music in its infancy has been described as an outlet and a voice for the disenfranchised youth of quality marginalized backgrounds and low-income areas, as the hip hop culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives. 28 Many of the people who helped establish hip hop culture, including dj kool Herc, dj disco wiz, grandmaster Flash, and Afrika bambaataa were of Latin American or Caribbean origin. It is hard to pinpoint the exact musical influences that most affected the sound and culture of early hip hop because of the multicultural nature of New York city. Hip hop's early pioneers were influenced by a mix of music from their cultures and the cultures they were exposed to as a result of the diversity. 29 New York city experienced a heavy jamaican hip hop influence during the 1990s. This influence was brought on by cultural shifts particularly thesis because of the heightened immigration of Jamaicans to new York city and the American-born Jamaican youth who were coming of age during the 1990s. Dj kool Herc is recognized as one of the earliest hip hop DJs and artists In the 1970s, block parties were increasingly popular in New York city, particularly among African-American, caribbean and Latino youth residing in the Bronx.
Block parties incorporated DJs, who played popular genres of music, especially funk and soul music. Due to the positive reception, djs began isolating the percussive breaks of popular songs. This technique was common in Jamaican dub music, 30 and was largely introduced into new York by immigrants from the caribbean, including dj kool Herc, one of the pioneers of hip hop. 31 32 Because the percussive breaks in funk, soul and disco records were generally short, herc and other DJs began using two turntables to extend the breaks. Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the jamaican tradition of impromptu toasting, a spoken type of boastful poetry and speech over music.
20 During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil wayne, soulja boy, and. O.B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, nicki minaj,. Cole, and Kendrick lamar all have been extremely popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop, also has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, travis Scott, and Kodak black.
Contents Origin of the term The creation of the term hip hop is often credited to keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the furious five. 21 However, lovebug Starski, keith Cowboy, and dj hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap. 22 It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching. 21 Cowboy later worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly used by other artists such as The sugarhill Gang in " Rapper's Delight ". 21 Universal Zulu nation founder Afrika bambaataa is credited with first using the term to describe the subculture in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it was a derogatory term to describe the type of music. 23 The first use of the term in print was in The village voice, 24 by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop. 25 1970s Origins Hip hop as music and culture formed during the 1970s in New York city from the multicultural exchange between African-American youth from the United States and young immigrants and children of immigrants from countries in the caribbean.
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East coast hip hop also had gangsta rap musicians such as the notorious. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of resumes popular music, examples being neo soul (e.g.: lauryn Hill, erykah Badu ) and nu metal (e.g.: Korn, limp bizkit ). Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music first genre by 1999. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences also increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States also saw the success of regional styles such as crunk (e.g.: Lil Jon the east Side boys, the ying Yang Twins a southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics. Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye west.
The golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the juice Crew, public Enemy, eric. rakim, boogie down Productions and krs-one, epmd, slick rick, beastie boys, kool g rap, big Daddy kane, ultramagnetic MCs, de la soul, and a tribe called quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. W.a, ice-t, ice cube, and the geto boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap. 19 In the west coast hip hop style, g-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East private coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the native tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb deep, wu-tang Clan, and Onyx.
an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include dj kool Herc, grandmaster Flash and The furious five, fab five freddy, marley marl, afrika bambaataa, kool moe dee, kurtis Blow, doug. Fresh, whodini, warp 9, the fat boys, and Spoonie gee. The sugarhill Gang 's 1979 song " Rapper's Delight " is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. S marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. 18 Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 198384 with the early records of Run-D. And ll cool.
7 8 9, other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records (or synthesized beats and sounds and rhythmic beatboxing. While often used to refer solely to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture. 10 11 The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, 4 12 though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of hip hop culture, including djing, turntablism, scratching, beatboxing. 13 14 Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during apple the 1970s when block parties became increasingly popular in New York city, particularly among African-American youth residing in the Bronx. However hip-hop music did not get officially recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979, largely due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods. 15 At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a dj mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". 16 Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became widely available and affordable.
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For other uses, see, hip hop (disambiguation). Two hip hop DJs creating new music by mixing tracks from multiple record players. Pictured are dj hypnotize (left) and Baby cee (right). Mc hero performing rhythmic rhyming known as " rapping " in Huntsville, alabama. Hip hop music, also called hip-hop 3 4 or rap music, 4 5 6 is a music genre developed in the, united States by inner-city. African Americans in the 1970s which consists of literature a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. 4, it developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: mcing / rapping, djing / scratching with turntables, break dancing, and graffiti writing.