You might want to show, for example, that there is a correlation between instances of x and y in a given population, or a given text, etc. You must identify this before you begin writing. How to say it, once you know what it is that you want to say, in as much detail as possible, you need to decide how best to convince your reader that what you are saying is valid. Imagine that your reader has not seen the above correlation, they have no access to the evidence, and you are their only means to get at this phenomena. How do you show them what you see? Know this before you begin writing, then plan and structure around your preferred argument. Clear Introduction, tell your reader, in the clearest terms, what you are about to demonstrate, and how you are going to. Do all of the work for them, make sure that they can just see, immediately, where you will guide them.
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From 1833 onwards, the state peasants received better retreatment in tenure, taxation and local government and their free status was essay affirmed. Between 1840-48 edicts were issued to encourage emancipation of serfs with land, to foster emancipation of domestic serfs and to endow the peasants the right to buy lands when their master sold their estates. However, these concessions did not create a class of free peasants. Moreover, coupled with other changes in law and administration, nicholas I's rule not only strengthened the. Sometimes, the simplest things are the best. This is true with good academic writing. It is sometimes tempting to make things more difficult than they need to be, but this can often result, in your writing, in confused readers, and low marks. By keeping jail a few simple tips in mind, during the process of essay writing, you can get a polished, clear, easy to follow piece of writing. Know what you want to say! The fundamental requirement for good academic writing is too know, precisely, as specifically as possible, what you want to say.
Nicholas I was particularly opposed to education of the poor because, as he put it, they became accustomed to a way of thinking and ideas which were not compatible with their position. Uvarev, his minister of education, proposed in 1832 the triple formula of orthodoxy, autocracy and nationality. It meant all the subjects in Russia were to believe in one religion, to be faithful to the czar and to be russianized in their way of life. The entry memory of the decembrist incident weighed heavily on Nicholas' reign like a nightmare. The reactionary nature of his regime was made more pronounce in that he took the lead in an international policy of counter-revolution and this policy was followed by the three eastern powers in 1825-55. Nicholas i, a severe and conscientious ruler, had learnt lessons from the decembrist revolt. In the grip of fear for peasant uprisings, he carried reforms from the above.
He argues that the government should get out of book the flood insurance business altogether and allow private insurers to provide a safe, secure, and environmentally sound form of protection. Watery marauders is a timely reminder that increased government involvement will always negatively affect private ventures and consumer welfare; in the long run, a free market allowed to develop at its own pace would reward presentation consumers with the least costly, most efficient, and most beneficial. The decembrists, most of them nobles and young officers, imbued with the French liberal ideas of the revolutionary tradition of 1789, attempted in December 1825 to secure a constitutional government under the duke of Constantine. Its failure resulted in an ever deepening process of social disintegration. Although the insurgents were but lightly punished. Nicholas i applied a series of repressive measures to prevent the spread of liberalism. A strict censorship was imposed upon the press in 1826. The darkest aspect of Nicholas reaction was cultural.
However, given time and independence, it would have likely materialized and flourished. Unfortunately, the first move toward nationalization occurred in 1936 when Congress passed the Flood Control Act. Since then, the availability of private flood insurance has steadily decreased in direct correlation to increased government involvement. National flood insurance mandates inhibited the private sectors growth by tacitly encouraging development in frequently flooded areas, and by pre-empting the need for private insurance. In other words, in addition to discouraging new firms from entering the market, federal action created a moral hazard by replacing plans to calculate the actual risk of flooding with mapping efforts that avoided collecting data that would prevent development. This federally-commissioned mapping effort, conducted by the tennessee valley authority (tva was intended to supply comprehensive flood risk predictions, but politically entrenched agendas compromised the goal of risk management. The project provided fatally flawed data, distorted development patterns, and made market entry even more unattractive for private insurers. Impaired by conflicting objectives, the tvas data collection inhibited successful floodplain management and changed the national Flood Insurance Program from a risk-based system into a charityan open-ended entitlement to be made whole after a floodin the guise of insurance. Lehrers report employs primary sources, insurance industry studies, and opinions from other experts to support his explanation of the federal governments effect on private flood insurance.
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"These things do cost money, but when you consider the value that statement is at risk, it's a great deal.". Webber, under the timber beams in her warm and dry sitting room, agrees: "We feel much better.". 19, 2009, flooding represents one of the greatest weather-related threats in the United States, costing billions of dollars annually in damages. Despite this, holiday most people have only one option for protection against flood-related losses, the national Flood Insurance Program. A new report demonstrates, however, that intervention in this market has only hampered its growth. In, watery marauders: How the federal government Obstructed the development of Private Flood Insurance (October 2009 Independent Institute research Fellow. Eli lehrer takes a detailed look at the decisive actions that resulted in a nationalized system of pooling flood-related risks.
Lehrers report delves into the history of flood insurance markets in the United States and investigates whether such insurance could exist without political interference. Lehrer, also a senior Fellow at the competitive enterprise Institute, explains that in some ways, floods represent a unique type of risk. Unlike other insurable dangers such as fires, thefts, illnesses, and accidents, floods almost always affect more than one home and only occur in certain areas. Consequently, any insurer offering flood policies would need enormous capital reserves and would only find clients concentrated in specific regions. Because of this, flood insurance is a naturally unattractive business to enter and factors intrinsic to this market are partially responsible for the slower-than-average growth of the private sector.
Photograph: Adrian Sherratt for The guardian. Spending on flood defences has become a hot political issue in recent weeks, with annual spending set to fall 15 in real terms under the coalition, compared with the level inherited from the last government. "Some of the defences have held remarkably well but I think we were lucky says Cloke, the flood expert. "Had the water levels been just a little bit higher, we could have jumped into a much bigger category of damage." "There will always be a place for the big defences says Fox. "In towns and cities, for example, we are actively delivering schemes in leeds, Exeter, Ipswich, leicester and Derby." Asked whether enough money is being spent, he says: "That is the 64,000 question. It is the Environment Agency's task to demonstrate what level of protection you get for a given level of investment.
It is up to ministers to decide how much money is spent. One of the most important messages is that we just can't stop it all.". Charles Tucker, chair of the national Flood Forum, which represents hundreds of flood-affected communities, says the funding situation is stark. "Yet again, the government is wringing its hands while the waters rise, while squeezing the life out of the bodies they have made responsible for tackling flooding. Tackling flooding must become a national priority.". In Bossington, hester says the government provided most of the 1m spent on the landscape experiment, started in 2009 and now protecting about 30m worth of housing.
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Similar realignments are occurring along the coast of East Anglia. In West Sussex, real letting the sea back in has created a the new rspb nature reserve. The society's head of water policy, rob Cunningham, says: "we are seeing a lot of knee-jerk responses to the current floods, seeking to return things to a 1960s state. But we have to adapt and progress into a world where this level of rain and storms is normal.". That adaptation will have to involve the farmers who look after two-thirds of the country's land, but many have felt left out of changing approaches to flood management. "All of the money is being driven into capital schemes to protect urban homes and less and less on background maintenance work which keeps the system flowing says Ian moody, of the national Farmers Union. He accepts that in some places there are good reasons to slow up runoff once more, but he argues that on flat land like the currently submerged Somerset levels, dredging watercourses is critical. He describes the 5m recently added to dwindling maintenance funds as "chicken feed" and says that if farmers are to store water on their land, they will need to be paid for the service, as happens in Germany. Estate tennants Helen Webber and John Hesp who have been flooded in the past but have kept their cottage dry since the bund flood defence or water storage bank was built upstream.
Currently rain runs straight into town sewers, but with climate change bringing more intense downpours, the underground pipes are becoming more frequently overwhelmed and millions of homes are now at risk of flash floods. In Salford, soil has been shifted around a housing estate to raise the houses and allow future floodwater to pond in gardens and parks, rather than shoot down drains. Hannah Cloke, a flood expert at the University of reading, says some people who have been repeatedly flooded are now even putting their homes on stilts. But less extreme measures are vital too, she says, like porous paving in driveways and green roofs that help book protect individual homes. "we are living with the legacy of lots of houses built on the floodplain, though changes to regulations and planning mean not many developments go ahead there now.". The exceptional month of storms has also brought a fierce battering of coastal defences. But through another "back to nature" approach, communities near Selsey and Bracklesham in West Sussex have survived unscathed. In november, in a "managed realignment", the sea walls were deliberately breached, letting the ocean back on to land and recreating saltmarshes. These now soak up the destructive power of the storms, better protecting the 350 homes beyond.
plans, i made my mind up pretty sharp: I wouldn't want to get flooded myself, and my son lives in the village down there." he jokes that the slopes of the new 5ft banks have increased the grass-growing area for. The holnicote experiment is one of three set up after the devastating floods of 2007 to explore alternatives to huge and costly concrete defences. Above pickering in Yorkshire flooded four times in a decade the forestry commission is planting more trees, and woody debris has been put in rivers to slow the flow. In the peak district upstream of Derby and Nottingham, drainage gullies are being blocked. The national Trust's Holnicote Estate near Minehead, somerset. Pete fox, head of strategy at the Environment Agency, which oversees the flood defences, says: "The traditional mantra was to increase the flow of water away from the land." he says the straightening and deepening of rivers was extreme in places, with the wyre. It flooded most recently in 2010. "But now we have a more considered approach he says, which also applies to new urban developments.
Webber's home, and 100 others nearby, are now protected by a gps radical landscape experiment that passed its first severe test during the recent weeks of extreme weather. Reversing centuries of efforts to drain land, dredge rivers and rush water to the sea, banks have been built to deliberately flood fields. Historic water meadows and silted-up ponds have been re-established, while old ditches and tracks have been dammed and new woods planted. "It's all about slowing up the water says Nigel Hester, who managed the project (pdf) on the national Trust's 12,500-acre holnicote estate which runs from the high moors of Exmoor to the flat, narrow coastal plain on which Bossington sits. "With the amount of rain we had, i was amazed no one got flooded. We must have held just enough back.". He says the project is going back to nature, restoring the natural function of rivers. "It was all about control in the past, getting rid of the water as quick as possible.
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After the torrential rain of Christmas eve, logs stacked outside helen Webber and John Hesp's thatched cottage were washed away down the lane. The rust-red river that surges past their 400-year-old home in the north Somerset village of Bossington was rising rapidly, and automated alarm calls by phone had awoken them in the early shredder hours. The couple have endured the misery of being flooded three times in last 20 years. But this time, despite the extreme downpour, the river did not burst its banks and their home was saved. "It was a narrow escape says Webber, who remembers well the trauma of previous floods. "It is really horrible, everything smells and is dirty and you have to chuck a lot of stuff away. You're left with a damp, empty shell.".