As in the other suggested "explanations the central question is, Is Brownlee's idea rooted in reality? Because of its long legs and neck, the giraffe appears to have a large surface area. But surface area alone is not important; it is the relation of the heat producing volume to surface area that is crucial. A small animal has a small volume in relation to a very large surface area, while a large animal very large volume in relation to its relatively small surface area. 1, now the giraffe is a very large animal with a barrel-shaped torso. Although its neck is long, it is also voluminous; only the lower parts of the legs, which carry relatively few blood vessels, would act to enlarge the surface-to-volume ratio substantially. Krumbiegel (1971) estimates that the ratio of volume to surface in the giraffe is 11:1, compared, say, to a smaller, long-necked antelope, the gerenuk, which has a ratio.7:1 (similar to the human). In other words, despite appearances, the giraffe still has a very large volume in relation to its surface area and its unique form provides no grounds to think that it evolved in relation to dissipating heat.
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This has left the giraffe with only one predatorthe lion. Pincher therefore explains the "excessive length of its forelegs as the effect of natural selection acting continually through the hunter-hunted relationship, as in the case of hoofed mammals generally." The neck, in turn, followed the lengthening legs so that the giraffe could still reach the. It is trading strange that Pincher is able to critique darwin's view so clearly and yet doesn't recognize that he is proposing the same type of inadequate explanation. The giraffe ancestor could just as well have developed greater bulk or more running muscles, both of which would have aided in avoiding predators. The fact is that despite its size and long stride, the giraffe is still preyed upon by lions. And as one study of one hundred giraffes killed by lions in south Africa showed, almost twice as many bulls were killed as cows (Pienaar 1969; cited in Simmons and Scheepers 1996). The longer stride of bulls evidently doesn't help them avoid lions better than the shorter legged females. Who knows whether their long stride may in some way make them more vulnerable? Another speculative idea into the wastebasket. Brownlee (1963) speculates that the lengthening of the limbs and neck in the giraffe give the giraffe a relatively large surface area, which should allow it to dissipate heat. This would be of advantage in the hot tropical climate, so that the tendency toward lengthening would have been encouraged by natural selection, since the largest animals would have been best able to survive heat waves.
The much larger and heavier elephant even stands sometimes on its back legs and extends its trunk to reach high limbsbut no one thinks that the elephant developed its trunk as a result of selection pressures to reach higher food. In sum, there is nothing in this theory that shows a compelling link between leg and neck lengthening and feeding on high limbs. Just because giraffes have long necks and long legs and can reach food high in the trees does not mean that a need to reach high browse was a causative factor in the evolution of those characteristics. A goat does not require a long neck to feed on twigs and leaves of an oak tree. Holdrege after a photo in Butzer 2000.). Clearly, both Darwin's and Lamarck's conceptions of giraffe evolution were highly speculative. The idea that giraffes developed longer legs and necks to reach higher food seems plausible, even compelling, as long as we do not (1) think the idea through in all its implications and (2) take into account essential observations of giraffe behavior and ecology. In the end, the idea is neither logically compelling nor based on fact. Alternative explanatory Attempts, pincher (1949 after critiquing Darwin's explanation, suggests that the "most extraordinary feature of the giraffe is not the length of the neck but the length of the forelegs." by developing long legs, the giraffe has acquired a huge summary stride so that.
So it looks as though giraffes are not using resume their long necks the way the theory demands. And they use them even less to reach heights in the dry season, when the theory demands they should need them most! 4) There are other ways to reach the high foliage of trees. Goats, for example, are known to climb into trees and eat foliage (see figure 3). Why didn't tree-climbing leaf-eaters (folivores) develop in the savannah? They would have had the advantage of feeding at all levels write easily and been in that respect more adaptable than the highly specialized giraffe. The long-necked gerenuk, an antelope, often stands on its hind limbs and browses, reaching heights of two meters and more.
(South of Moremi game reserve, botswana; drawing. A variety of other studies show that giraffe feeding habits vary according to place and time (reviewed in Simmons and Scheepers 1996). Giraffes move seasonally, and in the dry season in East Africa they tend to seek out lower valley bottoms and riverine woodlands. There they usually feed from bushes at or below shoulder height (about two and one half meters in females and three meters in males). Fifty percent of the time they fed at a height of two meters or less, which overlaps with the feeding zone of larger herbivores such as the gerenuk and the kudu (Leuthold and leuthold 1972; Pellew 1984; see figure 2). During the rainy season, when there is abundant browse at all levels, giraffes are more likely to feed from the higher branches, browsing fresh, protein-rich leaves. Other studies also show that giraffes do most of their feeding at about shoulder height, with their necks positioned nearly horizontally (Young and Isbell 1991; woolnough and du toit 2001).
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Had this been the case, then the multitude of browsing and diary grazing antelope species in Africa would all have gone extinct (or never evolved in the first place). So, even without growing taller, the giraffe ancestor could have competed on even terms for those lower leaves. 2) Male giraffes today are up to one meter taller than female giraffes; newborn and young giraffes are much smaller. The moment this sexual dimorphism manifested in the evolution of the giraffe, it would have been the males that could have reached the higher branches. The females and young animals would have died and the species would have gone extinct (Pincher 1949).
3) If giraffes evolved by eating high foliage during times of drought and maximal competition for food, one would expect that giraffes today would also feed from the high foliage during these times in order to avoid competition. Males usually feed at greater heights than females and the results of one study show a surprising spread (Ginnett and Demment 1997). Male giraffes fed nearly half of the time at heights of almost five meters, that is, in the "classical" long-necked giraffe posture. In stark contrast, females fed around seventy percent of the time at belly height or below, which the theory demands they should not be doing. These researchers did not report on the seasons in which they made these observations, so their results are of little help in discerning whether, for example, males feed at greater heights mainly during droughts. Giraffe feeding at about shoulder heightthe most prevalent height at which giraffes feed.
The idea that the giraffe got its long neck due to food shortages in the lower reaches of trees seems almost self-evident. The giraffe is taller than all other mammals, can feed where no others can, and therefore has a distinct advantage. It seems compelling to say that the long neck and legs developed in relation to this advantage. Why else would the giraffe be so tall? You find this view presented in children's books, in web descriptions of the giraffe, and in textbooks. But just because this explanation is widespread does not mean it is true.
In fact, this "self-evident" explanation retains its ability to convince only as long as we do not get too involved in the actual biological and ecological details. Various scientists have noticed that this elegant picture of giraffe evolution dissolves under closer scrutiny. Here are a few examples of my and their objections: 1) Since the taller, longer-necked, evolving giraffe ancestors were also larger and heavier, they would need more food than the animals they're competing with. Wouldn't this counterbalance their advantage in times of dearth? Would they really have any advantage over smaller members of the same and other species? Moreover, it is absurd to assume that only the leaves on high branches were available to the giraffe during a drought.
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Natural selection weeds out the unadapted and the best-adapted survive. These variations become dominant in the species and so it evolves. In the case of giraffes, times of drought and arid conditions give an advantage to those animals that can reviews out-compete others by reaching the higher, untouched leaves. They form the ancestral stock of the animals that evolve into giraffes. Interestingly, darwin believed in the "inherited effects of the increased use of parts"a very "Larmarckian" view. Lamarck argued for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Darwin felt that this was key to explain giraffe evolution; otherwise there is no guarantee that longer features in one generation will have an effect on subsequent ones. But this view of the inheritance of acquired characteristics is rejected by mainstream Darwinists today. The long Neck as a feeding Strategy.
It can thus obtain food beyond the reach of the other Ungulata or hoofed animals inhabiting the same country; and this must be a great advantage to it during dearths. So under nature with the nascent giraffe the individuals which were the highest browsers, and were able during dearth to reach even an language inch or two above the others, will often have been preserved; for they will have roamed over the whole country in search. Those individuals which had some one part or several parts of their bodies rather more elongated than usual, would generally have survived. These will have intercrossed and left offspring, either inheriting the same bodily peculiarities, or with a tendency to vary again in the same manner; whilst the individuals, less favoured in the same respects will have been the most liable to perish. By this process long-continued, which exactly corresponds with what I have called unconscious selection by man, combined no doubt in a most important manner with the inherited effects of the increased use of parts, it seems to me almost certain that an ordinary hoofed quadruped. In many respects this is a classic formulation of how Darwin viewed evolution: every species consists of individuals that show considerable variations. Under certain environmental conditions particular variations will be most advantageous.
like antelopes or deerneeded to adapt their behavior to this changing environment. As Lamarck wrote, "variations in the environment induce changes in the needs, habits and modes of life of living beings. These changes give rise to modifications or developments in their organs and the shape of their parts" (p. So lamarck imagined that over generations the habit of continually reaching for the higher browse produced in the giraffe's ancestors a lengthening of the legs and neck. Giraffe in a "classic" feeding position, extending its neck, head, and tongue to reach the leaves of an Acacia tree. (Tsavo national Park, kenya; drawing. Holdrege after a photo in leuthold and leuthold 1972.). A little over sixty years later, Charles Darwin commented on giraffe evolution in the sixth edition (1872) of his seminal book, origin of Species : The giraffe, by its lofty stature, much elongated neck, fore-legs, head and tongue, has its whole frame beautifully adapted for.
The giraffe's Short Neck, craig Holdrege, this essay is part of a larger monograph on the holistic biology of the giraffe. To purchase the monograph or view it for free online, go to the. Lamarck and Darwin, once scientists began thinking about animals in terms of evolution, the giraffe became a welcomeand seemingly straightforwardexample. It is as if the giraffe's long neck was begging to be explained by evolutionary theorists. One of the first evolutionary thinkers, jean-Baptist Lamarck, offered a short description of how the giraffe evolved in his major work, philosophie zoologique, which was published in 1809: It is interesting to observe the result margaret of habit in the peculiar shape and size of the. From this habit long maintained in all its race, it has resulted that the animal's forelegs have become longer than its hind-legs, and that its neck is lengthened to such a degree that the giraffe, without standing up on its hind-legs, attains a height. "d in gould 2002,.
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The giraffe is the tallest animal. What an ungainly creature a giraffe. The giraffe cannot make any vocalizations. a giraffe is an animal with a very long neck. The okapi is a short-necked primitive cousin of the giraffe. The giraffe's elongate neck is thought to be the result of natural selection. The museum's eclectic collection has everything from a giraffe skeleton to medieval musical instruments. In Context 10 (Fall, 2003,. 14-19 copyright 2003 by The nature Institute.