Spain and Britain were the only colonial powers left. Britain, as yet, had no pacific colonies in North America. The bourbon King Charles iii of Spain established missions and other outposts in Alta california out of fear that the territory would be claimed by the British, who not only had 13 colonies on the east coast, but also several islands in the caribbean, and. One of Spain's gains from the seven years' war was the French louisiana territory which was secretly given to Spain. Another potential colonial power already established in the pacific was Russia, whose maritime fur Trade of mostly sea otter and fur seals was pressing down from Alaska to the pacific Northwest 's lower reaches. These furs could be traded in China for large profits.
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The eastern and northern boundaries of Alta california were very indefinite, as the Spanish, despite a lack of physical presence and settlements, claimed essentially everything in what is now the western United States. The first permanent mission in Baja california, misión de nuestra señora de loreto conchó, was founded on October 15, 1697, by jesuit Friar juan Maria salvatierra (16481717) accompanied by one small boat's crew and six soldiers. After the establishment of Missions in Alta california after 1769, the Spanish turkish treated Baja california and Alta california as a single administrative unit, part of the viceroyalty of New Spain, with Monterey, california, as its capital. Nearly all the missions in Baja california were established by members of the jesuit order supported by a few soldiers. After a power dispute between Charles iii of Spain and the jesuits, the jesuit colleges were closed and the jesuits were expelled from Mexico and south America in 1767 and deported back to Spain. After the forcible expulsion of the jesuit order, most of the missions were taken over by Franciscan and later Dominican friars. Both of these groups were under much more direct control of the Spanish monarchy. This reorganization left many missions abandoned in Sonora mexico and Baja california. This 1745 map by British cartographer. Seale misrepresented California as an island. After the conclusion of the seven years' war between Britain and France and their allies (called the French and Indian War in the British colonies on the east coast) (17541763 France was driven out of North America.
The term "nova albion" was often used on European maps to designate territory north of the Spanish claims. Spanish maps, explorations etc., of this and later eras were generally not published, being regarded as state secrets. As was typical in this era, there were conflicting claims to the same territory, and the indigenous peoples who lived there were never consulted. In 1602, sixty years after Cabrillo, the Spaniard Sebastián vizcaíno explored California's coastline from San diego as far north as Monterey bay. He named San diego bay. He also put ashore in Monterey, california and made glowing reports of the monterey bay area as a possible anchorage for ships with land suitable for growing crops. He also provided rudimentary charts of the coastal waters, which were used for nearly 200 years. Spanish colonial period (17691821) edit The Spanish divided California into two parts, baja california and Alta california, as provinces of New Spain (Mexico). Baja or lower California consisted of the baja peninsula and terminated roughly at San diego, california where Alta california started.
After daddy sailing about 1,500 miles (2,400 km) south on they eventually reached their home port in Mexico. San Francisco bay escaped discovery for two centuries until it was finally discovered by land exploration in 1769. Francis Drake's claim (1579) edit Francis Drake "nova albion" quadracentennial Plaque at Drake's beach The English explorer and privateer Francis Drake sailed south along the coast of northern California in 1579 after capturing two Spanish treasure ships in the pacific. It is believed Drake put ashore somewhere north resume of San Francisco, where the golden Hind underwent extensive repairs and accumulated needed supplies for a trip across the pacific. Leaving California, he completed the second recorded circumnavigation of the world (after Ferdinand Magellan ) in 1580. The exact location of Drake's port is still undetermined, but a prominent bay on the california coast, Drakes bay, bears his name. He claimed all the land south of 42 degrees latitude, north of the imprecise Spanish claims and eastward from coast to coast for England, calling it nova albion.
Native cultures in California are much different from other Indian cultures in North America, and some have survived to the present day. California indigenous language diversity numbered 80 to 90 languages and dialects, some surviving to the present although endangered. 14 The high and rugged sierra nevada mountains located behind the Great Basin Desert east of California, extensive forests and mountains in the north, the rugged and harsh Sonoran Desert and Mojave desert in the south and the pacific Ocean on the west effectively isolated. Spanish trading route (1565) edit In 1565 the Spanish developed a trading route where they took gold and silver from the Americas and traded it for goods and spices from China and other Asian areas. The Spanish set up their main base in the Philippines. The trade with Mexico involved using an annual passage of Manila galleon (s). The eastbound galleons first went north to about 40 degrees latitude and then turning East they could use the westerly trade winds and currents. These galleons, after crossing most of the pacific Ocean, would arrive off the california coast from 60 to over 120 days later somewhere near Cape mendocino (about 300 miles (480 km) north of San Francisco) at about 40 degrees. They then could turn south down the california coast utilizing the available winds and the south flowing (about 1 mi/hr (1.6 km/h) California current.
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Despite this, the natural abundance of California, and the environmental management techniques developed by california tribes over millennia, allowed for the highest population density in the Americas north resume of Mexico. 10 Indians thrived on salmon and other fish, deer, tule elk, acorns, pine nuts, small game, mollusks, grass seed, berries, insects, edible plants, bulbs, and roots, making it possible to sustain a subsistence hunter-gatherer economy without agriculture as known by europeans but by means. This tradition of landscape management through fire ecology maintained acorn groves and other food sources, which along with knowledge of migratory herds such as elk and anadromous runs of salmon in the rivers, supported villages, small tribes, and extended family groups. A dietary staple for most Indian tribes in interior California was acorns, which were dried, shelled, ground to flour, soaked in water to leach out their tannin, and cooked. The grinding holes worn into large rocks over centuries of use are still visible in many rocks today. 11 The ground and leached acorn flour was usually cooked into a nutritious mush, eaten daily with other traditional foods.
Acorn preparation was a very labor-intensive process nearly always done by women. There are estimates that some Indians might have eaten as much as one ton of acorns in one year. 12 Families tended productive oak and tanoak groves for generations. Acorns were gathered in large quantities, and could be stored for a reliable winter food source. 13 Basket weaving was a high form of art and utility in California, as were canoe making and other carving. Local trade between Indian tribal groups enabled them to acquire seasonings such as salt, or foodstuffs money and other goods that might be rare in certain locales, such as flint or obsidian for making spear and arrow points.
European explorers flying the flags of Spain and of England explored the pacific coast of California beginning in the mid-16th century. Francisco de Ulloa explored the west coast of present-day mexico including the gulf of California, proving that Baja california was a peninsula, 8 but in spite of his discoveries the myth persisted in European circles that California was an island. Rumors of fabulously wealthy cities located somewhere along the california coast, as well as a possible northwest Passage that would provide a much shorter route to the Indies, provided an incentive to explore further. First European contact (1542) edit The first European to explore the california coast was juan Rodríguez cabrillo ( Portuguese : joão rodrigues Cabrilho working for Spain. He died in southern California in 1543.
Cabrillo and his men found that there was essentially nothing for the Spanish to easily exploit in California, and located at the extreme limits of exploration and trade from Spain it would be left essentially unexplored and unsettled for the next 234 years. The cabrillo expedition depicted the Indians as living at a subsistence level, typically located in small rancherias of extended family groups of 100 to 150 people. 9 They had no apparent agriculture as understood by europeans, no domesticated animals except dogs, no pottery; their tools were made out of wood, leather, woven baskets and netting, stone, and antler. Some shelters were made of branches and mud; some dwellings were built by digging into the ground two to three feet and then building a brush shelter on top covered with animal skins, tules and/or mud. 9 The cabrillo expedition did not see the far north of California, where on the coast and somewhat inland traditional architecture consists of rectangular redwood or cedar plank semisubterranean houses. Traditional clothing was minimal in the summer, with tanned deerhide and other animal leathers and furs and coarse woven articles of grass clothing used in winter. Feathers were sewn into prayer pieces worn for ceremonies. Some tribes around Santa barbara, california and the Channel Islands (California) were using large plank canoes to fish and trade, while tribes in the california delta and San Francisco bay area were using tule canoes and some tribes on the northwest coast carved redwood dugout. 9 The staple foods then used by other American Indian tribes, corn and/or potatoes, would not grow without irrigation in the typically short three- to five-month wet season and nine- to seven-month dry seasons of California (see mediterranean climate ).
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2 The native horticulturalists practiced various thesis forms of forest gardening and fire-stick farming in the forests, grasslands, mixed woodlands, and wetlands, ensuring that desired food and medicine plants continued to be available. The natives shredder controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology which prevented larger, catastrophic fires and sustained a low-density agriculture in loose rotation; a sort of "wild" permaculture. 3 4 5 6 European exploration edit a 1562 map of the Americas, which applied the name california for the first time. California was the name given to a mythical island populated only by beautiful Amazon warriors, as depicted in Greek myths, using gold tools and weapons in the popular early 16th-century romance novel Las Sergas de Esplandián (The Adventures of Esplandián) by Spanish author Garci rodríguez. This popular Spanish fantasy was printed in several editions with the earliest surviving edition published about 1510. In exploring Baja california the earliest explorers thought the baja california peninsula was an island and applied the name california. 7 Mapmakers started using the name "California" to label the unexplored territory on the north American west coast.
California became the 31st us state in 1850 and played a age small role in the American civil War. Chinese immigrants increasingly came under attack from nativists ; they were forced out of industry and agriculture and into Chinatowns in the larger cities. As gold petered out, california increasingly became a highly productive agricultural society. The coming of the railroads in 1869 linked its rich economy with the rest of the nation, and attracted a steady stream of migrants. In the late 19th century, southern California, especially los Angeles, started to grow rapidly. Contents History of California through 1899 edit main article: History of California through 1899 Pre-contact period edit main article: Indigenous peoples of California different tribes of Native americans lived in the area that is now California for an estimated 13,000 to 15,000 years. Over 100 tribes and bands inhabited the area. 1 Various estimates of the native american population in California during the pre-european period range from 100,000 to 300,000. California's population held about one-third of all Native americans in what is now the United States.
They left behind a small ". Californio " (white hispanic) population of several thousand families, with a few small military garrisons. MexicanAmerican War of 1846-48, mexico was forced to relinquish any claim to california to the United States. The unexpected discovery of gold. Sutter's Mill in 1848 produced a spectacular gold rush in Northern California, attracting hundreds of thousand of ambitious young men from around the world. Only a few struck it rich, and many returned home disappointed. Most appreciated the other economic opportunities in California, especially in agriculture, and brought their families to join them.
Citation needed, it was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-columbian North America. After contact with, spanish explorers, most of the native americans died out from European diseases. Portolá expedition of 176970, Spanish missionaries the began setting. California missions on or near the coast. Alta (Upper) California, beginning with the, mission San diego de Alcala near the location of the modern day city of San diego, california. During the same period, Spanish military forces built several forts ( presidios ) and three small towns ( pueblos ). Two of the pueblos would eventually grow into the cities. Los Angeles and, san Jose.
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This article is about the history of the area of the us state. For the history of northern Baja california, see. Baja california History. For the history of southern Baja california, see. Baja california sur History. See also: History of California before 1900, history of California 1900 to present, and, historical outline of California, the history of California can be divided into: the native american period; European exploration period from 1542 to 1769; reviews the Spanish colonial period, 1769 to 1821; the. Compromise of 1850 ) which continues to this present day. California was settled from the north by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years.