50 devol's patent for the first digitally operated programmable robotic arm represents the foundation of the modern robotics industry. 51 The first palletizing robot was introduced in 1963 by the fuji yusoki kogyo company. 52 In 1973, a robot with six electromechanically driven axes was patented by kuka robotics in Germany, and the programmable universal manipulation arm was invented by victor Scheinman in 1976, and the design was sold to Unimation. Commercial and industrial robots are now in widespread use performing jobs more cheaply or with greater accuracy and reliability than humans. They are also employed for jobs which are too dirty, dangerous or dull to be suitable for humans. Robots are widely used in manufacturing, assembly and packing, transport, earth and space exploration, surgery, weaponry, laboratory research, and mass production of consumer and industrial goods. 56 Future development and trends Further information: Future of robotics Various techniques have emerged to develop the science of robotics and robots.
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The body consisted of a steel gear, cam and motor skeleton covered by an aluminum skin. In 1928, japan's first robot, gakutensoku, was designed and constructed by biologist makoto nishimura. Modern autonomous robots The first electronic autonomous robots with complex behaviour were created by william Grey walter of the burden neurological Institute at Bristol, england in plan 19He wanted to prove that rich connections between a small number of brain cells could give rise to very. His first robots, named Elmer and Elsie, were constructed between 19were often described as tortoises due to their shape and slow rate of movement. The three-wheeled tortoise robots were capable of phototaxis, by which they could find their way to a recharging station when they ran low on battery power. Walter stressed the importance of using purely analogue electronics to simulate brain processes at a time when his contemporaries such as Alan Turing and John von neumann were all turning towards a view of mental processes in terms of digital computation. His work inspired subsequent generations of robotics researchers such as Rodney brooks, hans Moravec and Mark tilden. Modern incarnations of Walter's turtles may be found in the form of beam robotics. 48 The first digitally operated and programmable robot was invented by george devol in 1954 and was ultimately called the Unimate. This ultimately laid the foundations of the modern robotics industry. 49 devol sold the first Unimate to general Motors in 1960, and it alm was installed in 1961 in a plant in Trenton, new Jersey to lift hot pieces of metal from a die casting machine and stack them.
During the late '30s to early '40s the second sylable was pronounced with list a long "O" like "row-boat." citation needed by the late '50s to early '60s, some were pronouncing it with a short "U" like "row-but" while others used a softer "O" like "row-bought.". Richards with "George 1932 In 1928, one of the first humanoid robots, Eric, was exhibited at the annual exhibition of the model Engineers Society in London, where it delivered a speech. Richards, the robot's frame consisted of an aluminium body of armour with eleven electromagnets and one motor powered by a twelve-volt power source. The robot could move its hands and head and could be controlled through remote control or voice control. 44 Both Eric and his "brother" george toured the world. 45 Westinghouse Electric Corporation built Televox in 1926; it was a cardboard cutout connected to various devices which users could turn on and off. In 1939, the humanoid robot known as Elektro was debuted at the 1939 New York world's fair. 46 47 seven feet tall (2.1 m) and weighing 265 pounds (120.2 kg it could walk by voice command, speak about 700 words (using a 78-rpm record player smoke cigarettes, blow up balloons, and move its head and arms.
37 In 1897 the British inventor Ernest Wilson was granted a patent for a torpedo remotely controlled by "Hertzian" (radio) waves 38 ikola tesla publicly demonstrated a wireless-controlled torpedo that he hoped to sell to the us navy. 40 41 Archibald Low, known as the "father of radio guidance systems" for his pioneering work on guided rockets and planes during the first World War. In 1917, he demonstrated a remote controlled aircraft to the royal Flying Corps and in the same year built the first wire-guided rocket. Origin of the term 'robot' 'robot' was first applied as a term for artificial automata in the 1920 play. By the czech writer, karel Čapek. However, josef Čapek was named by his brother Karel as the true inventor of the term robot. 8 9 The word 'robot' itself was not new, having been in the Slavic language as robota (forced laborer a term which classified those peasants obligated to compulsory service under the feudal system widespread in 19th century europe (see: Robot Patent ). 42 43 Čapek's fictional story postulated the technological creation of artificial human bodies without souls, and the old theme of the feudal robota class eloquently fit the imagination of a new class of manufactured, artificial workers. English pronunciation of the word has evolved relatively quickly since its introduction.
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33 The design was probably based on anatomical research recorded in his Vitruvian Man. It is not known whether he attempted to liaison build. In Japan, complex animal and human automata were built between the 17th to 19th centuries, with many described in the 18th century karakuri zui ( Illustrated Machinery, 1796). One such automaton was the karakuri ningyō, a mechanized puppet. 34 Different variations of the karakuri existed: the butai karakuri, which were used in theatre, the zashiki karakuri, which were small and used in homes, and the dashi karakuri which were used in religious festivals, where the puppets were used to perform reenactments of traditional. In France, between 17, jacques de vaucanson exhibited several life-sized automatons: a flute player, a pipe player and a duck.
The mechanical duck could flap its wings, crane its neck, and swallow food from the exhibitor's hand, and it gave the illusion of digesting its food by excreting matter stored in a hidden compartment. 35 Remote-controlled systems Remotely operated vehicles were demonstrated in the late 19th century in the form of several types of remotely controlled torpedoes. The early 1870s saw remotely controlled torpedoes by john Ericsson ( pneumatic john louis lay (electric wire guided and Victor von Scheliha (electric wire guided). 36 The Brennan torpedo, invented by louis Brennan in 1877, was powered by two contra-rotating propellors that the were spun by rapidly pulling out wires from drums wound inside the torpedo. Differential speed on the wires connected to the shore station allowed the torpedo to be guided to its target, making it "the world's first practical guided missile".
270 BC) "applied a knowledge of pneumatics and hydraulics to produce the first organ and water clocks with moving figures." 21 22 In the 4th century bc, the Greek mathematician Archytas of Tarentum postulated a mechanical steam-operated bird he called "The pigeon". Hero of Alexandria (1070 ad a greek mathematician and inventor, created numerous user-configurable automated devices, and described machines powered by air pressure, steam and water. 23 Al-jazari a musical toy the 11th century lokapannatti tells of how the buddha's relics were protected by mechanical robots (bhuta vahana yanta from the kingdom of Roma visaya (Rome until they were disarmed by king Ashoka. In ancient China, the 3rd-century text of the lie zi describes an account of humanoid automata, involving a much earlier encounter between Chinese emperor King mu of Zhou and a mechanical engineer known as Yan Shi, an 'artificer'. Yan Shi proudly presented the king with a life-size, human-shaped figure of his mechanical 'handiwork' made of leather, wood, and artificial organs.
16 There are also accounts of flying automata in the han fei zi and other texts, which attributes the 5th century bc mohist philosopher mozi and his contemporary lu ban with the invention of artificial wooden birds ( ma yuan ) that could successfully fly. 19 In 1066, the Chinese inventor su song built a water clock in the form of a tower which featured mechanical figurines which chimed the hours. Su song 's astronomical clock tower showing the mechanical figurines which chimed the hours. The beginning of automata is associated with the invention of early su song's astronomical clock tower featured mechanical figurines that chimed the hours. His mechanism had a programmable drum machine with pegs ( cams ) that bumped into little levers that operated percussion instruments. The drummer could be made to play different rhythms and different drum patterns by moving the pegs to different locations. 28 Samarangana sutradhara, a sanskrit treatise by Bhoja (11th century includes a chapter about the construction of mechanical contrivances ( automata including mechanical bees and birds, fountains shaped like humans and animals, and male and female dolls that refilled oil lamps, danced, played instruments, and. In Renaissance Italy, leonardo da vinci (14521519) sketched plans for a humanoid robot around 1495. Da vinci's notebooks, rediscovered in the 1950s, contained detailed drawings of a mechanical knight now known as leonardo's robot, able to sit up, wave its arms and move its head and jaw.
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14 15 Closely related to the concept of a robot is the field of Synthetic biology, which studies entities whose nature is more comparable to beings than to machines. History main article: History of robots The idea of automata originates in the mythologies of many cultures around the world. Engineers and inventors from father's ancient civilizations, including Ancient China, 16 Ancient Greece, and Ptolemaic Egypt, attempted to build self-operating machines, some resembling animals and humans. Early descriptions of automata include the artificial doves of Archytas, 18 the artificial birds of mozi and lu ban, 19 a "speaking" automaton by hero of Alexandria, a washstand automaton by Philo of byzantium, and a human automaton described in the lie. 16 Early beginnings Many ancient mythologies, and most modern religions include artificial people, such as the mechanical servants built by the Greek god Hephaestus 20 ( Vulcan to the romans the clay golems of Jewish legend and clay giants of Norse legend, and Galatea, the. Since circa 400 bc, myths of Crete include talos, a man of bronze who guarded the island from pirates. In ancient Greece, the Greek engineer Ctesibius (c.
There are concerns about the increasing use of revising robots and their role in society. Robots are blamed for rising technological unemployment as they replace workers in increasing numbers of functions. 12 The use of robots in military combat raises ethical concerns. The possibilities of robot autonomy and potential repercussions have been addressed in fiction and may be a realistic concern in the future. Contents Summary kitt (a fictitious robot) is mentally anthropomorphic. Icub is physically anthropomorphic. The word robot can refer to both physical robots and virtual software agents, but the latter are usually referred to as bots. 13 There is no consensus on which machines qualify as robots but there is general agreement among experts, and the public, that robots tend to possess some or all of the following abilities and functions: accept electronic programming, process data or physical perceptions electronically, operate.
techniques developed through the Industrial age, there appeared more practical applications such as automated machines, remote-control and wireless remote-control. The term comes from a czech word, robota, meaning "forced labor" 6 ; the word 'robot' was first used to denote a fictional humanoid in a 1920 play. By the czech writer, karel Čapek but it was Karel's brother Josef Čapek who was the word's true inventor. 7 8 9 Electronics evolved into the driving force of development with the advent of the first electronic autonomous robots created by william Grey walter in Bristol, england in 1948, as well as Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine tools in the late 1940s by john. Parsons and Frank. The first commercial, digital and programmable robot was built by george devol in 1954 and was named the Unimate. It was sold to general Motors in 1961 where it was used to lift pieces of hot metal from die casting machines at the Inland Fisher guide Plant in the west Trenton section of Ewing Township, new Jersey. 10 Robots have replaced humans 11 in performing repetitive and dangerous tasks which humans prefer not to do, or are unable to do because of size limitations, or which take place in extreme environments such as outer space or the bottom of the sea.
Honda 's, advanced Step in Innovative mobility asimo ) and, tosy 's, tosy ping Pong Playing Robot topio ) to industrial robots, medical operating robots, patient assist robots, dog therapy robots, collectively programmed swarm robots, uav drones such. General Atomics mq-1 diary Predator, and even microscopic nano robots. By mimicking a lifelike appearance or automating movements, a robot may convey a sense of intelligence or thought of its own. Autonomous Things are expected to proliferate in the coming decade, 3 with home robotics and the autonomous car as some of the main drivers. 4, the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, 5 as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing is robotics. These technologies deal with automated machines that can take the place of humans in dangerous environments or manufacturing processes, or resemble humans in appearance, behavior, or cognition. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.
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This article is about mechanical robots. For software agents, see. For other uses of the term, see. A robot is a biography machine —especially one programmable by a computer — capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically. 2, robots can be guided by an external control device or the control may be embedded within. Robots may be constructed to take on human form but most robots are machines designed to perform a task with no regard to how they look. Robots can be autonomous or semi-autonomous and range from humanoids such.