He dismissed all charges at the close of the prosecutions case, avoiding the need for a defense and taking the case away from the jury. Among his reasons: a failure to prove specific intent to deprive the victims of their civil rights; due to the lack of any investigation, it was almost impossible at this late date to show which guardsmen shot which victim. In the new York city police force, which is far from perfect, officers who have killed or injured someone under questionable circumstances are often dismissed from the force even though there is not enough evidence for a criminal conviction; the standard of proof is not. You dont want an unstable, sadistic person on the force, even though there may not be enough evidence for a criminal conviction. But the guardsmeneven the one who confessed to shooting an unarmed demonstrator giving him the fingerwere not deemed unfit to serve the State, even though they had fired indiscriminately into a crowd containing many passsersby and students on their way to classes. A civil suit brought by the wounded students and the parents of the dead ones deteriorated among infighting by the plaintiffs lawyers. Unable to agree on a single theory of the case, they contradicted each other.
by marilynne robinson The new
Every time an officer discharges his weapon, it is taken from him, and there is an investigation. Hereto the fatal detriment of the federal criminal trial which followedit was never conclusively established which guardsmen had fired, or which of them loud had shot the wounded and the dead. Since all were wearing gas masks, it is impossible to identify them in pictures (many had also removed or covered their name tags, a classic ploy of law enforcement officers about to commit brutality in the 60s and 70s and though many confessed to having. The ballistic evidence could have helped here, but none was taken. One rumor has it that the guardsmen were told the same night that they would never be prosecuted by the state of Ohio. And they never were. The nixon administration stalled for years, announcing investigations that led nowhere; White house tapes subsequently released show that Nixon thought demonstrators were bums, asked the secret Service to go beat them up, and apparently felt that the kent State victims had it coming. As did most of the country; William Gordon calls the killings the most popular murders ever committed in the United States. The history of the next few years is very sad. A federal prosecution was finally brought, but the presiding judge is said to have signaled his preference for the defendants, guiding their attorneys conduct of the case to help them avoid legal errors.
One officer is seen in many of the photographs, out in front, pointing business a pistol; one possibility is that he fired first, causing the others, ahead of him, to turn and fire. Or (as some witnesses testified) he or another officer may have given an order to fire. It is indisputable that the guardsmen were not in any immediate physical danger when they fired; the crowd was not pursuing them; they were seconds away from being out of sight of the demonstration. There was also an undercover fbi informant, terry norman, carrying a gun on the field that day. Though he later turned his gun into the police, who announced it had not been fired, later ballistic tests by the fbi showed that it had been fired since it was last cleaned but by then it was too late to determine whether it had. It would be too charitable to say that the investigation was botched; there was no investigation. Even the new York city police, who are themselves prone to brutality and corruption, do a better job.
The closest student shot was fully sixty feet away; all but one were more than 100 feet away; all but two were more than 200 feet away. One of the dead was 255 feet away; the rest were 300 to 400 feet away. The most distant student shot was more than 700 feet from the guardsmen. Some rocks had been thrown, and some tear gas canisters fired by the guard had been hurled back, but (though presentation some of the guardsmen certainly must know the truth) no-one has ever been able to establish why the guard fired when they were seconds away. None had been injured worse than a minor bruise, no demonstrators were armed, there was simply nothing threatening them that justified an armed and murderous response. In addition to the demonstrators, none of whom was closer than sixty feet, the campus was full of onlookers and students on their way to class; two of the four dead fell in this category. Most guardsmen later testified that they turned and fired because everyone else was. There was an attempt to blame a mysterious sniper, of whom no trace was ever found; there was no evidence, on the ground, on still photographs or a film, of a shot fired by anyone but the guardsmen.
Some rocks were thrown, some windows were broken, and an attempt was made to burn the rotc building. Governor James Rhodes sent in the national guard. The units that responded were ill trained and came right from riot duty elsewhere; they hadnt had much sleep. The first day, there was some brutality; the guard bayoneted two men, one a disabled veteran, who had cursed or yelled at them from cars. The following day, may 4th, the guard, commanded with an amazing lack of military judgment, marched down a hill, to a field in the middle of angry demonstrators, then back up again. Seconds before they would have passed around the corner of a large building, and out of sight of the crowd, many of the guardsmen wheeled and fired directly into the students, hitting thirteen, killing four of them, pulling the trigger over and over, for thirteen. (Count out loudone mississippi, two mississippi, to see how long this.) guardsmennone of whom were later punished, civilly, administratively, or criminallyadmitted firing at specific unarmed targets; one man shot a demonstrator who was giving him the finger.
In the name of Patriotism teen Ink
Adams responded by urging a general boycott of British trade by the American Colonies. In 1774 the massachusetts legislature sent Adams and four others as its representatives to the first Continental Congress. Adams served Massachusetts again at the second Continental Congress where he was an advocate for independence and confederation for the American Colonies. He served Continental Congress until his return to boston in 1781. He initially opposed the new Constitution of the United States, but finally supported its ratification in Massachusetts. Adams served as governor of Massachusetts from 1793 to 1797. Born in Boston, died in Boston might be a good epitaph for Samuel plan Adams, as noted by william Fowler in his book samuel Adams radical Puritan.
Adams died a peaceful death on October 3, 1803. His contributons to the success of our nation can never be forgotten, and his dedication to the rights of Americans should never go without recognition. Samuel Adams: Radical Puritan. Kent State riot Essay, research Paper. Kent State riot of may 4, 1970. Twenty-five years ago this month, students came out on the kent State campus and scores of others to protest the bombing of Cambodia a decision of President Nixons that appeared to expand the vietnam War.
Success was in his blood. His father was Samuel Adams and his mother was Mary fifield. Adams was a cousin of John Adams who became President of the United States. As a young child, samuel spent his elementary school days at Boston Latin. Academics quickly became his forte and at age fourteen he enrolled in Harvard College. Four years later, a member of the Class of 1743, samuel Adams graduated from Harvard College with a master of Arts degree.
After college he entered private business, and throughout this period was an outspoken participant in Boston town meetings. When his business failed in 1764 Adams entered politics full-time, and was elected to the massachusetts State legislature. Adams led the effort to establish a committee of correspondence that published a declaration of Colonial Rights that he had written. He was a vocal opponent of several laws passed by the British Parliament to raise revenue in the American Colonies, including the tea act which gave a british trading company a monopoly on the import of tea into the colonies. This opposition reached its peak on December 16, 1773 when a group of Bostonians dumped a british cargo of tea into boston Harbor. This act of resistance is referred to, and will be forever remembered as the boston tea party. The British Parliament responded to the boston tea party by passing a set of laws referred to as the Intolerable Acts. These laws included the closing of Boston Harbor and the restriction of town meetings.
The American Empire
Even though Kennedy may be blamed for not being a summary very hard working President, at least he worked more in the direction of the best interest of the people in this country, and not mainly for his own personal benefit nor did he devote and. Inside The oval Office. New York: Kodansha America, inc., 1999. American Patriot And Politician Essay, research Paper. Samuel Adams, american Patriot politician to know Samuel Adams the person, one must look far back to the earliest days of his life and move forward from there. To know Adams the American Patriot, one must be aware of this politicians tremendous efforts from within the early United States government. The following biography will examine both sides of this American founding father. Samuel Adams was born in Boston, massachusetts on September 27, 1722. One could have guessed that this infant would grow to be a leader of the fight against British colonial rule, and a signer of the declaration of Independence.
United States and left the. In this paper, i have presented two different Presidents who each had an entirely different perspective on the role and power limitations that the chief executive office of the most powerful country in the world should possess. Power, as stated in the book is having the ability to persuade people with different views than you have was demonstrated much more swiftly by nixon but with much less concern for the good of the country or the office of President, nixons use. When you look at President Kennedys administrative accomplishments, you can easily point out the numerous accomplishments without much downfall in his swift governing style. Kennedys personal skeletons are those that became public and caused the Presidents image to become a bit lackluster. On the other hand, nixons downfalls seem to overshadow the good that he actually accomplished. Withdrawing troops from vietnam and his policy adjustments that benefited the relations between the United States and foreign countries are completely forgotten when things like the watergate scandal are brought into focus. Nixons information that he gathered from others was almost always seemingly in a scandalous nature and for the sole reason of committing crimes from the White house and his executive offices. As you can tell in the book, most people who worked for Nixon thought of a lot of his ideas as absurd and orders handed down by the President were not followed through. President Kennedy got his information from the most important people that he could get valid information from that related directly to the conflict at hand.
President Kennedys tenure forced him to face some very difficult issues that were very important and had severe impacts on the way our country has been governed since. The civil rights movement, the bay of pigs and Cuban missile crisis just to name a few. President Kennedy, through no real fault of his own, took this country to the brink of nuclear war but by his swift, rational governing avoided catastrophe not only on the national level but also locally in situations such as the integration of The University. Keeping a calm and level head about the integration situation, kennedy advised governor Barnett on how to continue to maintain law and order, a civil protest (Doyle, 106). Even when the situation erupted into an uncontrollable riot, kennedy took the ultimate blame on himself, kennedy cursed himself for not sending the troops in earlier (Doyle, 120). President Nixon got much of his political advising from his staff, or at least got a description of the picture of what was going on from them. Most of what is discussed in Nixons chapter entitled, The Strategic Executive is Nixons strategies for controlling things outside the White london house that most presidents never dreamed of controlling. Overstepping the boundaries of moral jeopardy several times, and especially during the watergate scandal, nixon discussed some of the most corrupt actions an executive of this magnitude could commit with people while being recorded.
Study the Arts diploma international Baccalaureate
Inside The oval Office is a book written by william doyle that explores the differences in the occupational tendencies of the Presidents of the United States since Franklin. The actual transcripts from calls and discussions from within the oval office walls in the White house give you a behind the scenes look at the Presidency in a manner that has never before been expressed, to my knowledge. Reading books of this nature are not only interesting, but they bring to light new perspectives that you may not have previously expected to think about. Some questions that are raised in this book range from the understanding particular Presidents had of certain key political events in our history, to what exactly the President did on a day biography to day basis and was his service of this country what the American. In my writing, i will summarize how both Presidents Kennedy and Nixon gathered and used information in making decisions and also how reliable and useful this information was in making key political decisions. Since President Kennedy served first of the two, i will follow the logic of chronological order in this paper and begin by saying that President Kennedy used several different sources to gather information, including high ranking security officers, congressional advisors and members, state governors, and. Despite the sometimes pointed commentary by officials providing the president with information, President Kennedy maintained his profile as The rational Executive just as the chapter about him in this book is named (Doyle, 93).