The following paper represents a database analysis and design of an online dvd sales information system. The database design will consist of data flow diagrams showing customer details, dvd details and order details. The objective of this paper is to create a data flow model for online dvd sales. Data analysis and design, databases and data models have attracted the interest of many organizations globally. By definition, a database is an immense, constant and integrated collection of active data that offers some operations describing, establishing, manipulating, and accessing the data. Organizations, institutions, individuals and governments use database technology to organize, store, and retrieve data.
Data, analysis and representation ( qualitative research )
Published: isbn:, pdf 279 pages.76. This collection of peer-reviewed conference papers provides comprehensive coverage of cutting-edge research in topological approaches to data analysis and visualization. It encompasses the full range of new algorithms and insights, including fast homology computation, comparative analysis of simplification techniques, and key applications in materials and medical science. The volume also features material on core research challenges such as the representation of large and complex datasets and integrating numerical methods with austin robust combinatorial flecting the focus of the topoInVis 2013 conference, the contributions evince the progress currently being made on finding experimental solutions. They provide an inclusive snapshot of state-of-the-art research that enables researchers to keep abreast of the latest developments and provides a foundation for future progress. With papers by some of the worlds leading experts in topological techniques, this volume is a major contribution to the literature in a field of growing importance with applications in disciplines that range from engineering to medicine. No other Mirrors, Please! look for similar ebooks here. Introduction, organizations aim at making profits and as such they must come up with effective strategies for attracting customers. The use of database technology is one of the most commonly utilized methods of conducting business thesis operations using online purchases. An organization comes up with a data flow process model that allows customers to purchase and pay for goods and services online.
The resource will contain: 1) bibliographical data base of papers, monographs, and electronic publications; 2) catalogue of Internet resources with the relevant data; 3) terminological reference base on image processing, analysis and recognition; 4) means of semantic access to database the above mentioned components and external. All these components lean on the use of semantic tia links for discovering the data needed on the bases of the request and document meanings conformity. Now we have a tia version that indicates the above defined links among about 1340 terms (in English and Russian forms including 230 of image category, 535 image processing, 165 image analysis and 110 pattern recognition. In view of the fact that the conceptual system of our subject domain is insufficiently structured and rather unstable, tia will be continuously replenished with new terms, alternative ways of object nomination and it will incorporate new semantic relations as the experience of practical tia. Acknowlegement, this paper is partially supported by the russian foundation for Basic Research, grant. Topological Methods in Data Analysis and Visualization iii: Theory, algorithms, and Applications Repost. Peer-Timo Bremer, Ingrid Hotz, valerio pascucci, ronald peikert - topological Methods in Data Analysis and Visualization iii: Theory, algorithms, and Applications.
The search instruction will be designed as to optimize the retrieval performance of the search machine used. The instruction will include the request terms and all the synonyms, specific terms, and terms of immediately connected notions, indicated in the thesaurus. The output will consist of the fist pages of the search machine recall ordered in accordance with a relevance criterion. The items of this output will be reordered by new relevance criterion which calculation accounts for different weights of the request terms indicated by end-user, and evoked for the search from the thesaurus as well. The items in the first rows of this list will be the pertinent documents for the user with the greatest probability. Internet resource on image analysis, ran scientific council on Cybernetics now develops an Internet resource on image processing, analysis and recognition that will concentrate the access to information sources. Information access will be supported by semantic interface on the bases of the Thesaurus for Image Analysis (TIA).
Qualitative, data, analysis : Technologies and, representation
If the search instruction contain the ontological links, not only new documents shall appear in the output, but those documents shall appear in the first rows of relevancy ordered output that mention the search object not casually, but treat it in detail, taking into consideration. This shall be achieved by accounting for the linked terms writing in relevancy calculations. Statistical investigation of Internet search machines showed that the ratio of pertinent resources was doubled on the first pages of output. Even more effective retrieval performance will be achieved when the specially established software analyses thesaurus links in information resources texts. More precise simulation of the domain ontology might include a procedural part that transforms the thesaurus links into activity corresponding to ontological processes.
This role is performed by the information search software that spreads the search operations from essayist general terms to the specific ones, from the whole to the parts, goes from a cause to its effects, from input material to output data, brings to consideration instrument terms. A system with other destination might be a different model of the same ontology, with other procedural part, for instance with the functions of automatic image processes planning. Use of a thesaurus for information retrieval. The spontaneity of Internet resources creation excludes the hope on preliminary classification of the materials or indexing with irt terms, as it is in the sphere of scientific and technological information. As a whole the procedure of thesaurus application for intelligent search in global nets and big documentation banks may be described as follows. A software interface will be elaborated to generate a search instruction from the text of the end-user information request.
These interconnections permit retrieval of the search objects under alternative ways of nomination, and evidently raise the search recall. In particular synonymy links must be registered between different orthographic variants, which has the great importance for English where British and American norms disagree; for instance, color (Am) colour (Brit). If notion extensions intersect partly, a lexical link is expedient when the notions include mainly the objects from the intersection. These associative links permit to recall the documents that may contain the needed information with a great probability. That may be very valuable when the direct search leads to poor recall. Additional information can be obtained also by search on terms with no notion intersection if they are connected by ontological substances or processes.
The most obvious substantial interconnection is the link between a whole object and its parts. So, this link should enter the dictionary structure. The operational interconnections which have a great influence on image analysis processes are the following: Kind of images - Processing methods. Processing methods - Result, instrument - Processing method, property - bearer of the property. Inclusion of all these interconnection in a dictionary brings us to the conception of information retrieval thesaurus (IRT). It is a conventional retrieval tool in the systems of scientific and technological information what was confirmed by the series of national and international standards. Irt provides possibility for classifying the information resources during the search process, on the bases of requirements of individual request.
Multidimensional, data, analysis, representation, security and Management
These phenomena show that the structure of daddy notions relations is not a tree, but a general case oriented graph without cycles. Such a notion net can be represented in a tree-structure of terms if the identical terms were placed sometimes in different nods. This entails to a tree with glued together nods. For instance, the notion high-pass linear filter takes places in two nods: a subclass of high-pass filter as well as linear filter. A list of the class names with indication of the immediately broader superclasses and narrower subclasses is the adequate representation of the notion structure. This leads us to the representation of the classification system in the form of a dictionary which indicates by lexical links the interconnections between notions caused by the inclusion relations for notion extensions. An immediate generalization of this book idea is the inclusion into consideration of the terms with coinciding notion extensions (synonyms) and partly coinciding as well. Special links are to be established between the last terms in the dictionary. Synonymy link indicates that these terms have the same ontological denotation.
Classification system of notions permits to organize an effective retrieval not only in the previously developed catalogues, but also in a free navigation mode across the information resources space. In accordance to a request for any object, a search instruction is to be formed automatically which includes not only the name of the search object, but also all terms of the subclasses of the search object class. In the result, the relevance criterion calculation will take into account all kinds of the search object. Ontology representation by a thesaurus. Tree-structures do not reflect the relations of ontologically and pragmatically significant notions in full. The one and the same class may be divided by different bases, and different intersecting rows of subclasses will appear. (Such subclasses of the description assignment class are image description and structural description intersecting in the notion structural image description). Many notions may be treated in the different aspects as subclasses of two and more broader notions.
connections between the terms naming the notions. The features that indicate the affiliation of the notions to one or another class arise as the signs of interactions with an investigator. In the domain of image data handling, the four main notion classes are obviously distinguished: images (objects of handling processes of handling, instruments of handling, and handling tasks. Qualitative words make up two more classes: properties (of objects, processes, instruments and tasks and other words of general character. Finally, the system must reflect its own nature where all the objects are represented by some texts; so, the names of the texts will form a category of description terms. According to classical theory of classification, the upper level categories should be divided consecutively to lesser classes by a general feature on each step of dividing. The resulting tree-structure of classes exists almost in each information system as its catalogue. However, the search in the catalogue restricts the search field by the resources that were previously classified and included in any catalogue division.
The human cognitive sphere comprises such an ontological model in the form of the net of psychic gestalten (ideas) and logic notions. The systems dealing with natural language texts could comprise the analogous net in the form of a dictionary which lists semantic characteristics and cross-references for each term denoting ontological realia. The necessity of developing universal and global dictionaries impedes the full-scale use of the ontological dictionary conception for searching in the universal multi-branch documentation resources and global nets. Nevertheless a restricted representation of the isolated subject domain ontology is sufficient for a search machine to successfully detect the relevant information in that domain. So, for the information retrieval in the domain of image analysis, processing and understanding only specific notions have to be provided (with the restricted amount of general terms). Developing of such restricted dictionary becomes apple a quite executable problem. Ontology representation by classification systems, search machine may comprise ontology representation with different degrees of completeness.
Data, analysis : Definition, limitations and Issues
The problem of information search in the domain of operations on image data is considered. The concept of lexical thesaurus is proposed as a model of the subject domain ontology that aims an amelioration of the search machines output. Introduction, information supply has a paramount significance for investigations in the urgent and quickly developing sphere of image data analysis and understanding. The search of information in the modern global nets and big universal data banks cannot be successful if mere coincidence of the words in the request and a document works as a relevance criterion. Search resume machines use various complex criteria which take into account statistical properties of the words and their grammatical variability. However the practice of the information retrieval systems development in the domain of scientific and technological information showed that the high retrieval quality could be achieved only on the bases of the semantical analysis of the request and the information resources texts. An ontological model of the subject domain of the search should be incorporated in the system. Such model would permit the sense analysis by indication of the proper place for each text among the real objects of the notions treated in the text. The proximity of these ontological representations of the texts would be the criterion for the relevance decision.